Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet - WPI

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet - WPI

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet Networks: Fast Ethernet 1 Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T) How to achieve 100 Mbps capacity? LLC MAC Convergence Sublayer MII

Media Independent Interface Data Link Layer Physical Layer Media Dependent Sublayer Media Independent Interface provides three choices. Networks: Fast Ethernet 2

Fast Ethernet [IEEE 802.3u] Three Choices Figure 4-21.The original fast Ethernet cabling. * Concept facilitated by 10Mbps/100Mbps Adapter Cards Networks: Fast Ethernet 3 100 BASE T Networks: Fast Ethernet

4 Fast Ethernet Details UTP Cable has a 30 MHz limit Not feasible to use clock encoding (i.e., NO Manchester encoding) Instead use bit encoding schemes with sufficient transitions for receiver to maintain clock synchronization. Networks: Fast Ethernet 5

100 BASE T4 Can use four separate twisted pairs of Cat 3 UTP Utilize three pair in both directions (at 33 1/3 Mbps) with other pair for carrier sense/collision detection. Three-level ternary code is used 8B/6T. Prior to transmission each set of 8 bits is converted into 6 ternary symbols. Networks: Fast Ethernet 6 100 BASE T4 The signaling rate becomes

100 x 6/8 ------------ = 25 MHz 3 Three signal levels : +V, 0, -V Codewords are selected such that line is d.c.balanced All codewords have a combined weight of 0 or 1. Networks: Fast Ethernet 7 100 BASE T4 36 = 729 possible codewords. Only 256 codewords are requires, hence they are selected:

To achieve d.c. balance Assuming all codewords have at least two signal transitions within them (for receiver clock synchronization). To solve d.c. wander, whenever a string of codewords with +1 are sent, alternate codewords (inverted before transmission) are used. To reduce latency, ternary symbols are sent staggered on the three lines. Networks: Fast Ethernet 8 100 BASE T4

Ethernet Interframe gap of 9.6 microseconds becomes 960 nanoseconds in Fast Ethernet. 100 m. max distance to hub; 200 meters between stations. Maximum of two Class II repeaters. Networks: Fast Ethernet 9 100 Base TX Uses two pair of twisted pair, one pair for transmission and one pair for reception. Uses either STP or Cat 5 UTP.

Uses MTL-3 signaling scheme that involves three voltages. Uses 4B/5B encoding. There is a guaranteed signal transition at least every two bits. Networks: Fast Ethernet 10 100 BASE FX Uses two optical fibers, one for transmission and one for reception. Uses FDDI technology of converting 4B/5B to NRZI code group streams into optical signals.

Networks: Fast Ethernet 11 Fast Ethernet Repeaters and Switches Class I Repeater supports unlike physical media segments (only one per collision domain) Class II Repeater limited to single physical media type (there may be two repeaters per collision domain) Switches to improve performance can add fullduplex and have autonegotiation for speed mismatches. Networks: Fast Ethernet

12 Collision Domains Networks: Fast Ethernet 13 Networks: Fast Ethernet 14 Networks: Fast Ethernet

15 Gigabit Ethernet History In February 1997 the Gigabit Ethernet Alliance announced that IEEE802.3z Task Force met to review the first draft of the Gigabit Ethernet Standard According to IDC by the end of 1997 85% of all network connections used Ethernet. Higher capacity Ethernet was appealing because network managers can leverage their investment in staff skills and training. 1000 BASE X (IEEE802.3z) was ratified in June 1998. Networks: Fast Ethernet 16

Gigabit Ethernet (1000 BASE X) Provides speeds of 1000 Mbps (i.e., one billion bits per second capacity) for half-duplex and full-duplex operation. Uses Ethernet frame format and MAC technology CSMA/CD access method with support for one repeater per collision domain. Backward compatible with 10 BASE-T and 100 BASE-T. Uses 802.3 full-duplex Ethernet technology. Uses 802.3x flow control. All Gigabit Ethernet configurations are point-to-point! Networks: Fast Ethernet

17 Gigabit Ethernet Architecture Standard Media Access Control (MAC) full duplex and/or half duplex Gigabit Media Independent Interface (GMII) (optional) 1000 Base X PHY 8B/10B auto-negotiation 1000 Base-LX 1000 Base T PCS

1000 Base-SX 1000 Base-CX Fiber optic transceiver Fiber optic transceiver Copper transceiver Single Mode or Multimode Fiber Multimode

Fiber Shieled Copper Cable 1000 Base T PMA transceiver Unshielded twisted pair IEEE 802.3ab IEEE 802.3z Networks: Fast Ethernet

Source - IEEE 18 Gigabit Ethernet Technology Figure 4-23.Gigabit Ethernet cabling. 1000 BASE SX fiber - short wavelength 1000 BASE LX fiber - long wavelength 1000 BASE CX copper - shielded twisted pair

1000 BASE T copper - unshielded twisted pair * Based on Fiber Channel physical signaling technology. Networks: Fast Ethernet 19 Gigabit Ethernet (1000 BASET) LLC MAC GMII Data Link Layer

Gigabit Media Independent Interface Physical Layer Media Dependent Interface Medium Networks: Fast Ethernet 20 Gigabit Media Independent Interface (GMII) Allows any physical layer to be used with a given MAC. Namely, Fiber Channel physical layer

can be used with CSMA/CD. Permits both full-duplex and half-duplex. Networks: Fast Ethernet 21 1000 BASE SX Short wavelength Supports duplex links up to 275 meters.

770-860 nm range; 850 nm laser wavelength (FC) Fiber Channel technology PCS (Physical Code Sublayer) includes 8B/10B encoding with 1.25 Gbps line. Only multimode fiber Cheaper than LX. Networks: Fast Ethernet 22 8B/10B Encoder Networks: Fast Ethernet 23

8B/10B Encoding Issues When the encoder has a choice for codewords, it always chooses the codeword that moves in the direction of balancing the number of 0s and 1s. This keeps the DC component of the signal as low as possible. Networks: Fast Ethernet 24 1000 BASE LX Long wavelength Supports duplex links up to 550 meters. 1270-1355 nm range; 1300 nm wavelength

using lasers. Fiber Channel technology PCS (Physical Code Sublayer) includes 8B/10B encoding with 1.25 Gbps line. Either single mode or multimode fiber. Networks: Fast Ethernet 25 1000 BASE CX Short haul copper jumpers Shielded twisted pair. 25 meters or less typically within wiring closet. PCS (Physical Code Sublayer) includes 8B/

10B encoding with 1.25 Gbps line. Each link is composed of a separate shielded twisted pair running in each direction. Networks: Fast Ethernet 26 1000 BASE T Twisted Pair

Four pairs of Category 5 UTP. IEEE 802.3ab ratified in June 1999. Category 5, 6 and 7 copper up to 100 meters. This requires extensive signal processing. Networks: Fast Ethernet 27 Gigabit Ethernet compared to Fiber Channel Since Fiber Channel (FC) already existed, the idea was to immediately leverage

physical layer of FC into Gigabit Ethernet. The difference is that fiber channel was viewed as specialized for high-speed I/O lines. Gigabit Ethernet is general purpose and can be used as a high-capacity switch. Networks: Fast Ethernet 28 Gigabit Ethernet Viewed as LAN solution while ATM is WAN solution. Gigabit Ethernet can be shared (hub) or switched. Shared Hub Half duplex: CSMA/CD with MAC changes:

Carrier Extension Frame Bursting Switch Full duplex: Buffered repeater called {Buffered Distributor} Networks: Fast Ethernet 29 Gigabit Ethernet Figure 4-22. (a) A two-station Ethernet. (b) A multistation Ethernet. Networks: Fast Ethernet

30 Carrier Extension Frame RRRRRRRRRRRRR Carrier Extension 512 bytes For 10BaseT : 2.5 km max; slot time = 64 bytes For 1000BaseT: 200 m max; slot time = 512 bytes Carrier Extension :: continue transmitting control characters [R] to fill collision interval. This permits minimum 64-byte frame to be handled. Control characters discarded at destination.

For small frames net throughput is only slightly better than Fast Ethernet. Networks: Fast Ethernet 31 Based on Raj Jains slide Frame Bursting Frame Extension Frame Frame Frame

512 bytes Frame burst Source sends out burst of frames without relinquishing control of the network. Uses Ethernet Interframe gap filled with extension bits (96 bits) Maximum frame burst is 8192 bytes Three times more throughput for small frames. Networks: Fast Ethernet 32 Based on Raj Jains slide

Buffered Distributor Hub A buffered distributor is a new type of 802.3 hub where incoming frames are buffered in FIFOs. CSMA/CD arbitration is inside the distributor to transfer frames from an incoming FIFO to all outgoing FIFOs. 802.3x frame-based flow control is used to handle congestion. All links are full-duplex. Networks: Fast Ethernet 33 Based on Raj Jain slide

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