Cultural Competence in Respiratory Care Terry S. LeGrand, PhD, RRT Department of Respiratory Care The University of Texas at San Antonio Why be Culturally Competent? Many cultures populate our country Vast array of customs, beliefs, practices
Important to understand impact of different backgrounds on health delivery Ethnic Religious Cultural Definition and Purpose Cultural competence recognition of and appropriate response to key cultural features that
affect clinical care Purpose to improve health care outcomes despite the existence of a culturally diverse population of patients who utilize the health care system Health Care Disparities Disparities in health care delivery exist among
African Americans Latino/Hispanics Native Americans Asians Alaskans Pacific Islanders Culturally competent health care guidelines
will help eliminate these disparities The Focus of Cultural Competence The clinicians perception Systematic information gathering Effective communication Patient education Literacy Family dynamics Health beliefs Key Components
Purpose Attitude Skills Purpose To improve health care outcomes despite the existence of a culturally diverse population of patients who utilize the health care system Attitude A willingness to adapt to the needs of patients and their family members,
and to meet those needs in an objective, non-judgmental way Skills Behaviors that exemplify appropriate interactions between health care professionals and their patients A practice that is unacceptable in one culture may be very therapeutic to
individuals of another culture. The many forms of medicine . . . Pills Injections Surgery Poultices Herbs Roots Chicken soup
A hug Becoming Culturally Competent Gather information from patients in uniform and systematic way Compile information into a database Should reflect culture groups in YOUR service area Becomes part of patients
permanent medical record How is it done? Incorporation of cultural assessments into general patient assessments Serves purpose of making health providers more aware of needs of patients and family members
Purnells Model Used to collect and organize information about different groups of people may be shared with others may be refined to meet facility needs may be updated as more information is learned
Purnells Model: Gather information about . . . Heritage, inhabited localities Dominant language, cultural communication patterns, temporal relationships Family roles and organization
Head of household Taboos Gender roles High risk behaviors Work force issues Endemic diseases, skin color, variations Childbearing rituals Death rituals
Spirituallity Home care practices Home care practioners Purnell, LD and Paulanka, BJ. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1998. Germains Explanatory Model Germain, C. Cultural Care: A bridge between sickness, illness and disease. Holistic Nurs. Pract. 6(3):19, 1992.
Groups of questions to ask the patient designed to encourage patient to discuss perceptions of illness and related experiences use conversational tone dont interrogate! questions may be incorporated into other commonly used assessment instruments Germains Explanatory Model: Sample Questions What do you think caused
your illness? Why do you think it started when it did? How do you feel? What change did you notice? What do you think your illness does to you? How does it work in your body? In your mind? What do you know about this sickness? How do you feel about it? What have you done to help
yourself with this illness? What have your friends and family done to help? How do you think these remedies are working for you? What are the most important results you hope to receive from this treatment? What kind of treatment do you think you need now? What do you fear most
about your illness? How severe do you think it is? How are you managing or dealing with this sickness? Essential Elements of Cultural Competence Elements that contribute to a systems capacity to become culturally competent Valuing diversity Possessing capacity for cultural selfassessment Being conscious of dynamics inherent in interactions between cultures
Having institutionalized cultural knowledge Developing adaptations of service delivery reflecting an understanding of cultural diversity Important Points Avoid stereotyping Do not misapply scientific knowledge when attempting to integrate your own world view with that of your patients Learn about your patients traditional healthcare practices
Teach them in personal and sensitive ways about Western methods Important Points Remember that in certain cultures treatment that involves sharing personal or emotional concerns may be met with resistance. Recognize when choices made by patients or family members are based on cultural forces and do not merely reflect ignorance of Western medicine and its rationale. Its ok to incorporate harmless folk remedies, such as herbal teas, into treatment regimen to
communicate caregiver understands their importance. Patient Education Required by JCAHO Must be delivered with consideration for literacy, educational level, and language of patient Interpreters should be available at all health care facilities Literacy and Reading
Level Many functionally illiterate patients do not read their own language well enough to understand instructions on prescriptions or care plans in which they are expected to participate. Most effective reading materials include graphic illustrations and text written in large enough font (12 point min) to be easily read by older adults. Sentence case is easiest to read. 3rd or 4th grade reading level Use familiar terminology (breathing treatment, not small volume nebulizer tx)
Example of Successful Intervention Overweight, hypertensive Mexican-American women Unwilling to jog through their neighborhood Very willing to participate in Salsa dancing lessons at local community center Successfully lowered both weight and blood pressure
The Bottom Line A patients satisfaction with treatment, tendency to adhere to therapy regimens, and continuity of care may depends on sensitivity of clinicians response to folk illness beliefs. Judgmental attitude on part of clinician may lead to termination of future clinical encounters. Wrapping it Up!
Keep in mind that . . . Modern medicine goes a long way toward treating disease processes, but has little influence on changing behavior and practices. Public health studies consistently show improvement in health outcomes as care providers bridge cultural gaps between themselves and their patients. Keep in mind that . . .
Communication and understanding lead to improved diagnoses and treatment plans Improved patient satisfaction leads to greater compliance with care plans and fewer delays in seeking care Cultural competence allows provider to obtain more specific and complete information to make appropriate diagnosis The Goal Cultural competence
enhances the compatibility between Western and traditional cultural health practices builds healthy communities through community development programs Cultural Competence promotes respect for beliefs, language, interpersonal styles, and
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