CS1102 - Introduction to Computer Studies Computer Science Department City University of Hong Kong Course General Info (1) Teaching Team Lecture: Dr. Helena WONG (Coordinator), Prof. Xiaohua Jia, Dr. Jianping Wang Labs: Prof. Xiaohua JIA, Dr. Jianping WANG, Dr. Helena WONG Dr. Jean WANG, Dr. Kenneth LEE Contact info on Blackboard Reference Book Discovering Computers 2014 (1st Edition), by Misty E. Vermaat, Cengage Learning Ltd. Blackboard-based course
It is your own responsibility to check Blackboard and University e-mail account regularly for announcements and updates 2 Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 Course General Info (2) Online Resources Textbook CourseMate (access code will be given when purchasing the book) access.cengage.com Textbook companion site (free) http://www.cengagebrain.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fi d=M20b&product_isbn_issn=9781285161761&token= Howstuffworks.com
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page (English) http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page (Chinese) Always use search engines to find out more Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 3 Course General Info (3) Teaching pattern Lectures (2 hours per week) Explain the terminologies, concepts, methodologies Labs (2 hour per week) Hands-on programming activities and discovery exercises
Assessment Course work (40%) Weekly homework (10%) Answer questions on Blackboard after lectures (deadline announced on Blackboard) Attempt programming exercises within labs Midterm quiz (20%) Group presentation (10%) Examination (60%) Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 4 You Are Expected To University Guide 1 credit unit = 40 to 50 hours (including lecture, tutorial, self study) 3 credit units ~ 120 to 150 hours per semester
~ 10 hours per week ~ 6 hours self-study and practice You are expected to take ownership of your learning Be prepared to the class (try to read the materials before hand) Attend and participate in all classes (lec & lab) Submit assignments on time Don't be afraid of asking questions (inside or outside classroom) Use online resources as much as possible No academic dishonesty Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
5 Course Intended Learning Outcomes 1. Describe the basic principles of computer systems, networks, Internet and information security; 2. Inquire and evaluate the social, ethical, and safety issues of emerging technologies and innovations; 3. Demonstrate the use of software tools and the ability to write simple programs using a scripting language;
4. Apply basic programming concepts and trace the execution of simple computer programs. * For other details, check out the course syllabus in Blackboard Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 6 Objectives for Today Identify the basic parts of a computer and how they work together Describe what are hardware and software using examples, and
explain the relationship between them Describe the major types of computers in use today and their principal uses Discuss how World Wide Web and emails work List common computer security risks and ways of protection Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 7
Computers Change Our Life Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 8 What Is a Computer? "An automatic electronic device for performing mathematical or logical operations" - from Oxford English Dictionary "A device that receives, processes, and presents information." - from Science and Technology Encyclopedia "A computer is a machine designed for manipulating data according to a list of instructions known as a program." from Wikipedia "Programmable machine that can store, retrieve, and process data." - from Encyclopdia Britannica ( ) Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 9
What Is a Computer? Speed + Stupidity A computer is a multipurpose device that takes input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, according to a series of stored instructions Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 10 Components of a Computer Hardware - the physical components of a computer System unit Peripherals
Input Processing Storage Output Communication Software - a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do (program) Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 11 System Unit (1)
Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 12 System Unit (2) System unit - the case containing electronic components used to process data Central processing unit (CPU or processor) "The brain of the computer" Carry out the instructions that operate the computer Memory Temporarily stores instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions CPU uses memory for instant access to information Hard Disk Stores a large volume of information
Serves as a longer-term storage device Motherboard, CD-ROM/DVD drive, adapter cards, ports Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 13 Peripherals (I) A peripheral device is any piece of hardware attached to a computer (external device) Input devices - hardware used to enter data and instructions E.g., Output devices - hardware that conveys information to users E.g., Storage devices - hardware holds data and instructions for future use E.g.,
Communication devices - hardware enable a computer to send and receive information from other computers/devices E.g., Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 14 Peripherals (II) Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 15 Software CPU is controlled by software - instructions that tell it what to do System software
Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices Including the operating system (OS), which is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices and allows uses to run other software Application software Programs that perform specific tasks for users, including Word processing, Web browser, media player, games, Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 16 Computer Programming What is computer programming? Process of creating software (writing instructions to direct computers process data) Programming in C++
Running Application Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 17 Documents and Files Files have two types: Applications (called program files) and Documents (called data files) Applications contain instructions that can be executed by the computer Sometimes called executable files Documents contain passive data rather than instructions Sometimes called data files Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 18
File Management In PCs In Windows, a file is represented by a name and an icon Extension - a string of (usually) three characters Follows a period (.) at the end of file name Gives more information about the file's origin or use Files can be organized into collections using folders (directories) The operating system (OS) allows you to do: Create folders Give them meaningful names and store files inside them Folders can be organized hierarchically - a folder can contain other folders Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
19 File Path A path is the general form of a file or directory name, giving a file's name and its unique location in a computer system A full path or absolute path is a path that points to the same location on one file system regardless of the working directory. It is usually written in reference to a root directory E.g., C:\WP\Data\Myfile.txt Drive letter Folder Subfolder Filename Extension A relative path is a path relative to the current working directory, so the full absolute path may not need to be given
Files in the same working directory are listed without any preceding slashes A single dot (.) refers to the current directory Double dots (..) refer to the parent directory To refer to a location which is more than one directory level up, use a combination of double dots Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 20 File Path Example Question: 1) what is the absolute path of Myfile.txt file? 2) Suppose you are now in C:\WP\Backup (i.e., it is your working directory), what is the relative path of Myfile.txt file? Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
21 Categories of Computers What are the categories of computers nowadays? Super-computers Mainframes Servers Personal computers Mobile computers and mobile devices Embedded computers Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
22 Supercomputers Supercomputers The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computers at the time of its construction Used for specialized application that require huge amounts of mathematical calculations such as weather maps, construction of atom bombs, finding oil, earthquake prediction, etc. Example: http://www.top500.org/ http://www.graph500.org/ Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
23 Mainframes Mainframes Very large and expensive computers capable of supporting thousands users at the same time Used by large organizations, such as banks and airlines, for big computing jobs Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 24 Servers A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network Provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information Some servers are mainframes
Jean Wang / CS1101 - Lec01 25 Personal Computers Personal computers (PCs) PC (IBM) and compatibles use the Microsoft Windows OS A type of computers whose price, size, and capabilities make it suitable for personal usage Two most popular kinds PC-compatible or simply PC which often use a Windows operating system
Apple (Macintosh) use Apple iOS operating system Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 Apple Macintosh uses iOS 26 Portable Computers and Mobile Devices Mobile computers Personal computer that you can carry from place to place Portable, small enough to fit on your lap (laptop) Examples include notebook computers, laptop computers, netbooks, and tablets Mobile devices
Small enough to hold in your hand Examples include smart phones, e-book readers, handheld computers and PDAs Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 27 Embedded Computers Embedded computers A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product The computer is completely encapsulated by the device it controls Examples of embedded systems
Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) Airplanes, automobiles Printers, copy machines, fax machines Microwave ovens, washing machines Videogame consoles, DVD players, mp3 players Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 28 Embedded Computers Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 29
Computer Networks Computer communications are The process by which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information Computers can be connected to a network A collection of computers and devices connected via communications devices and transmission media Devices include modem, network card, wireless card, Transmission media include cables, telephone lines, wireless radio, satellites
Network can be connected to other networks The Internet - worldwide collection of interconnected networks United yet autonomous: each organization on the Internet is responsible only for maintaining its own network Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 30 The Internet Using the Internet, you can: List Internet services you use. How often do you use them? Can you recall when you first used each service? Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 31
World Wide Web World Wide Web (WWW) is a most popular service on the Internet Made up of millions of interlinked documents called hypertexts or Web pages Web pages are usually written in HTML (hypertext markup language) Web pages are viewed via a simple point-and-click program called Web browser Using a Web browser, you can jump from one Web page to another by clicking hyperlinks (often called just links) A collection of related pages and graphics stored on the same computer is called a Web site; the server program that runs on the web-site to serve web-requests is called a Web server Each Web page has a unique address Referred to as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
32 What is a URL ? URL is the unique address for a Web page http://www.cityu.edu.hk/cityu/student/index.htm Protocol for Web pages Domain Name Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 Path Page File 33 How WWW Works ? The Web works as a client-server system Your computer is the client
The remote computers that store the Web pages are the servers 1. Your browser connects to a server and requests a page (HTTP cmd) Your machine running a Web browser 2. The server sends back the requested page Question: is server a type of computers like mainframes and PC? Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
Server machine running a Web server host program 34 E-mail Basics (I) Short for "electronic-mail", one of the original services on the Internet When you sign up for an e-mail account, you receive: A user name (sometimes called a login name or alias) A storage area for messages (usually called a mailbox) An Email address is in the format of [email protected] e.g., [email protected][email protected][email protected]
Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 35 E-mail Basics (II) Any user can send a mail message to anyone, regardless of whether the recipient is currently logged in connected to the network The message will be waiting in the recipients inbox the next time he or she launches his or her e-mail program and logs in An e-mail message can be addressed to one person or hundreds of people Messages can consist of simple text or can contain attachments, such as documents, graphics, or audio/video clips Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 36
1. Client A sends the email to server A by SMTP A organization's server machine running an email server program Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 2. Server A sends the email to server B (SMTP) 3. Client B fetches the email from server B by POP B organization's server machine running an Email
server program 37 Internet Security Basics The Internet can be a dangerous place. Once you connect a computer to the Internet, you have risk that your system will be damaged in some way What risks are you facing ? Virus Phishing website How can you protect yourself? For virus, a) no open .exe files attached to emails; b) no download S/ W from untrusted website; c) keep anti-virus S/W upto date For phishing websites: a) check domain name in URL; b) no use of untrusted URL links Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01
38 Lesson Summary Computers come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but theyre all made up of two thingsthe physical parts of the computer, called hardware, and the software instructions that tell the hardware what to do A computers operating system software takes care of details of the computers operation; application software provides specific tools for computer users Computers can be networked to other computers using cables, wireless radio, or other means The Internet is a global network of computer networks used for education, commerce, and communication Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 Lesson Summary The most popular Internet activities are exploring the World Wide
Web and communicating with electronic mail The Web World Wide works as a client-server system, and hyperlinks "glue" the whole Web together Electronic mails also work in a client-server system Access to the Internet is not without risks; Internet users must be prepared to deal with unsolicited e-mail, computer viruses, identity theft, and other risks. Ways to protect computer security include restricting access, encrypting data, installing firewall and anti-virus programs and regularly upgrading the system and backing-up data. Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 Machine Evolution Manual calculator: before 16th century E.g., abacus, slide rule
Mechanical calculator: 16th to 18th century E.g., difference engine by Charles Babbage First generation of computers: 1930s to mid-1950s Vacuum tubes Second generation: mid to late-1950s Transistors Third generation: late-1950s to early-1970s Integrated circuits
Fourth generation: early-1970s to present Microprocessor Fifth generation ? Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 41 Moore's Law Empirical observation made by Gordon Moore in 1965 Original prediction: the number of transistors on an integrated circuit for minimum component cost doubles every 24 months Now it is widely associated
with the claim that computing power at fixed cost is doubling every 18 months Jean Wang / CS1102 Lec01 42
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