Crime, Punishment and Policing exam

Crime, Punishment and Policing exam

Chief local government officers, appointed by the King. Given the power to act without a jury except for cases with a death sentence. Supervised Parish Constables. Tudor policing These were not paid for their service, they volunteered. JPs volunteered to do this service to gain the respect of the King. JUSTICES OF THE PEACE Once every three months, all JPS in a county met at Quarter Sessions where serious court cases were dealt with.

Responsible for maintenance of bridges and licencing taverns. Not focused on tackling crime, just keeping general order of different areas of country. They supervised the watchmen and had responsibility for carrying out warrants for arrest issued by the JPs. Like the 'Special' of today, the Parish Constable was unpaid except for some expenses. They gave the name of repeat offenders to JPs. Parish Constables Enquired into

offences, served summonses, executed warrants, took charge of prisoners and prosecuted them Tudor policing Like watchmen, many preferred not to do the job, so would take a fine or hire someone to do it in their place. 4 out of every 10 were hired. Could arrest people for crimes, petty or serious, including vagrants and the idle and disorderly. Many people resented the Parish Constables at a time when punishments were harsh for petty crimes. Generally only enforced the law in response to complaints from victims or warrants issued by JPs.

Duties were unpleasant and unpaid, alongside their regular job. More about preventing crime by their presence rather than detecting it (methods not up to scratch). Their duties also included calling out the hour at night. During the day they would communicate with hand signals or flags. At night they would use loud instruments such as horns. WATCHMEN Armed with a staff, no match for violent criminals. Tudor policing Watchmen usually stood on towers located around the town or city

looking out for signs of crime. Many took to playing instruments during their long, and often boring shifts. Examined suspicious people and apprehended offenders and brought them to the watchhouse. PAID? JUSTICES OF THE PEACE PARISH CONSTABL ES WATCHME N Tudor policing TRAINED? FOCUSED ON

TACKLING CRIME? X X X X X X X X X Explain the problems with crime fighting in the Tudor period. (7 marks) 1-2 MARKS Extracts information, no own knowledge. 3 MARKS Uses source and some background knowledge to describe 4-5 MARKS Uses sources and own knowledge to begin to discuss how specific causes led to specific problems, discusses two methods of crime fighting. 6-7 MARKS Uses sources and own knowledge to explain causes of three problems.

Introduced by Henry Fielding in 1750. Introduced as crime was increasing, as was population. Originally 6 members, by 1800 there were 68. Bow Street Runners Industrial policing Carried pistol, cutlass, tip staff, and handcuffs. Bow Street Horse Patrol set up by John Fielding. These succeeded in ridding their area of highway robbery. Were paid. Published newspaper hue and Cry. Why were they introduced? Development of huge new towns and cities meant that methods which

were acceptable in Tudor period no longer worked. Perceived increase in crime. Perceived corruption in government. Within two years broke up most gangs of street thieves operating in their area. Before BSR Charlies and constables ineffective, drunk, corrupt. No real focus on catching criminals just preserving order. BSR were different because Specifically chosen men. Reasonably well equipped. Sole focus was chasing down criminals, and it worked! Managed to get rid of HR and street gangs from their areas. Because of the BSR Peel took note and the government took responsibility for policing with the creation of the MET in 1829. The foundations of policing as we understanding it today were laid. Turning point 1-2 marks Very weak, vague points made.

The Bow Street Runners can be seen as a turning point because they were the first group focused 3-4 marks solely on tackling crime rather than it just being Describes aspects of the Bow Street one aspect of their role. Unlike the Constables and Runners, gives reasons but does not watchmen before them they did not have to carry explain. out peripheral duties such as calling out the time or ensuring tax collection. Their sole duty was to 5-6 marks execute warrants and tackle crime on their patch. Judgement, explains some points, lacks however. The success of this focus on tackling crime is clear when you consider that the Bow Street Runners 7-8 marks managed to remove the majority of gang crime and Excellent analysis explaining how Highway Robbery from their area of operations. they were an improvement on The success of the Bow Street Runners also predecessors, what they led to and influenced Robert Peel in setting up the their limitations. Metropolitan Police Force in 1829 who also were solely focused on tackling crime and are still the same police force sued today. Metropolitan Police Force Introduced by Sir Robert in 1829. Peel had seen the success of the Bow Street Runners. Peel believed that the government had a responsibility to its people.

Key points All London's police were the responsibility of one authority, under the direction of the Home Secretary, with headquarters at Scotland Yard. 1,000 men were recruited to supplement the existing 400 police. Being a policeman became a fulltime occupation with weekly pay of 16/- and a uniform. Recruits were carefully selected and trained by the Commissioners. Police were responsible only for the detection and prevention of crime. Successes Decline in crime in London after the introduction of the police, but by no means eradicated. First paid nationally organised police force. Succeeded in spreading across UK. Limitations No training or real specialisation. Limited to thief catching rather than real detective work due to technological constraints. How much of a turning point was the introduction of the Metropolitan Police Force in 1829?

On a turning point question.: How is it better than what went before? What did it lead to? What problems did it fail to change? BSR Government involvement Extension Technology/training? Thief catchers? The introduction of the Metropolitan Police Force 1829 can be seen as a turning point because Due to the introduction of the MET lead to further improvements in crime fighting What problems did they fail to fix. The Municipal Corporations Act, 1835 The Rural Constabularies Act, 1839 This act reformed some of the rotten boroughs and laid down regulations that boroughs could, if they wished, set up a police force under the control of the borough Watch

Committee. Very few seemed keen to implement the law and by 1837 only ninety three out of one hundred and seventy one boroughs had organized a police force. This act, which is sometimes referred to as the County Police Act, enabled Justices of the Peace to establish police forces in their counties, This Act was not compulsory and police forces had only been established in twenty-five out of the fifty five counties by 1856. Many rural areas objected to the cost and refused to introduce the scheme. The County and Borough Police Act, 1856 This act made it compulsory for a police force to be established in any county that had not previously formed a constabulary. The new forces that were set up varied considerably in details, especially over size, wages hours and conditions of work. To make sure that the law was obeyed the Home Secretary appointed Inspectors of Constabulary. They inspected every

force and reported to the Home Secretary. Those that were rated as efficient were given a government grant of twenty five percent towards their running costs. The Detective Branch, 1842 Detective work was not a strong point of early police forces and uniformed policemen were limited in what they could do, as criminals recognised their uniforms and avoided them. Policemen in plain clothes had a better chance of success. However, after the Bow Street Runners were disbanded in 1839 there was no detective force until 1842 when the Detective Branch was formed. It consisted of two Inspectors, six sergeants, and a number of constables. One of the first cases investigated by the Detective Branch was the Bermondsey Horror in 1849 in which a married couple murdered a man and buried him under their kitchen floor. After going on the run they were tracked down by Detectives, found guilty and hanged. Gradually, through such cases and a steady fall in the crime rate in the second half of the century, people began to respect the police. Early specialisation The Criminal Records Office was set up in 1869 at Scotland Yard, London. It contained the records of criminals from all over the country, making use of the new

telegraph communications between different forces. The Criminal Investigation Department replaced the Detective Branch in 1878. Members of the CID were paid slightly more than uniformed police and could claim a number of allowances. The Special Irish Branch was created in 1883 as a response to the threat of Irish terrorism. This was the first of the specialised squads spun off from the CID. In 1888 the reference to Irish was dropped and their remit was extended to cover other threats. Photography The photographing of prisoners began in the 1850s and its value was soon realised. It provided a visual record and images could be circulated across the country. The establishment of the Police Gazette, in 1883, enabled the circulation of photographs, names, and descriptions of criminals to be shared as well as the record of previous convictions and their locations. Explain why policing methods changed during the nineteenth century. (7 marks) One reason why policing methods changed in the nineteenth century

was the ineffectiveness of watchmen, as mentioned in Source A. These 1-2 MARKS Picks were usually old, unpaid men with no information from source. real focus on tackling crime or motivation to do so and so they could not keep up with crimes such 3asmarks, describe using pickpocketting. own knowledge. Key reasons for change: Ineffectiveness of watchmen/constables. Increase in crime. Success of the BSR. Peel believing that the it was the governments responsibility to look after its people. successes of police in London led to further extensions. 4-5 marks tries to identify how it why it has changed. 6-7 MARKS uses sources and own knowledge to explain why policing changed. DEVELOPMENTS IN POLICING MODERN Use of better technology to help specialise police force, more expansion and training to ensure that police force is more effective in both crime prevention and catching

criminals. New technology (finger printing, computers, training) Women in police. Development of better specialisation. (fraud squads, Forensics, community relations. Issues facing police. (pressures of red tape, use of weapons, more organised crime. HOW EFFECTIVE WAS IT? Developments were a reaction to increase in crime and developments in crime. Specialisation and use of technology makes policing much more effective but crime is continually evolving and adapting meaning that police How much of a turning point was the introduction of the Metropolitan Police Force in 1829? On a turning point question.: How is it better than what went before? What did it lead to? What problems did it fail to change? BSR Government involvement Extension Technology/training? Thief catchers? The introduction of the Metropolitan Police Force 1829 can be seen as a turning point because Due to the introduction of the MET lead to further improvements in crime

fighting What problems did they fail to fix. Women and the Police How did the introduction of women make policing more effective? Key developments Women Police Volunteer Service created in 1914, voluntary and to help police, but only tackled issues involving women such as prostitution. The first British policewomen wore skirts and long tunic tops, which made it difficult for them to chase criminals. From 1923 - 30, women police were given limited powers of arrest. 1930 under - 69, A4 Branch (Women Police) was established a female Superintendent. In 1969 the Women's Branch was dissolved in anticipation of the Equal Pay Act, although women police were still treated as a separate section of the service. It was not until 1973 that Women Police were integrated directly into the main force. Initially, limited utility.

Their role was similar to that of a social worker. Good for dealing with vulnerable/female victims of crime. Role becomes more varied and similar to that of a policeman in second half of twentieth century. By the mid-twentieth century, the types of crime had become so varied that policing had to become more specialised. Match up the example of specialisation to its description. 1883 1919 1946 1946 1965 1972 1998 2001 2002 2006 Special Irish Branch (SO12)

Flying Squad How has specialisation made policing more effective? Deals with terrorism. Deals with serious theft, equipped with cars for quick response. Fraud Squad Investigates fraud. Dog Handlers Officers trained to work with sniffer dogs/crowd control. Special Patrol Group Deals with inner city issues and threats to public order. Anti-Terrorist Squad (SO13) Preventing terrorist activity. National Crime Squad Deals with serious/organised crime for example drug smuggling, contract killing, kidnapping. National Hi-Tech Crime Unit Deals with serious and organised cyber crime. Immigration Crime Team Deals with illegal immigration. Counter Terrorist Command Merging of SO12 and SO 13 to focus on preventing (SO15) domestic extremism and terrorist threats. Specialisation/training Key developments By the mid-twentieth century, the types of crime had become so varied that policing had to become more specialised. Policing was developing so that fraudsters and terrorists could be tracked down by specialist police officers.

From 1945, police work had become so varied that specialisation had to be introduced. National squads were introduced to deal with fraud, from 1946, and to deal with the threat of IRA terrorism from 1971. National squads could share information more effectively than regional groups. Development had been necessary to meet the challenges of an everincreasing range of crimes and to keep society safe. In 1907 the Peel house Police Training College was formed. In 1947 the National Police College began. These training centres are essential in creating an effective and specialized police force. How did the development of specialisation make policing more effective? Makes policing significantly more effective as training/experience is developed in tackling crime. However, as policing has become more specialised, so has crime! Technology Key developments The police improved their communication through the use of technology: the telephone in 1901, radio in 1910 (and later two-way radio), the Police National Computer and closed-circuit TV from the 1980s.

Technology also speeded-up the polices ability to track criminals more quickly as they used pursuit cars which were increasingly sophisticated with more technology on board, including Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) today. The use of heat-seeking equipment on helicopters has also been an effective technological aid for the police. Use of forensic science such as National DNA database, Nation Fingerprint and DNA database make it easier to track and catch criminals. How did the development of technology make policing more effective? PNC/Forensics allows for cataloguing of criminals with national access. Some technology such as CCTV actually prevents crime as well as helping to catch criminals. However, as policing has become more tech savy, so has crime! Transport! Key developments Transport developments were adapted effectively in the c20th: bicycles in 1909; motorboats in 1910, covering 45 miles of the

River Thames; cars in 1919; motorbikes in the 1930s; and helicopters in the 1970s. From the 1970s, the use of the car had such an impact that the police changed their methods of working by replacing the bobby on the beat with rapid response teams which could be quickly called to the scene of a crime. How did the development of technology make policing more effective? The police have improved their ability to combat crime by making use of developments in transport. Allows for faster response time to crimes and increased chance of catching criminals. However, cars and the like have also led to developments in crime! Forensic science! Key developments Transport developments were adapted effectively in the c20th: bicycles in 1909; motorboats in 1910, covering 45 miles of the River Thames; cars in 1919; motorbikes in the 1930s; and helicopters in the 1970s.

From the 1970s, the use of the car had such an impact that the police changed their methods of working by replacing the bobby on the beat with rapid response teams which could be quickly called to the scene of a crime. How did the development of forensic science make policing more effective? The police have improved their ability to combat crime by making use of developments in transport. Allows for faster response time to crimes and increased chance of catching criminals. However, cars and the like have also led to developments in crime! How important was the use of technology in helping police to combat crime in the twentieth century? [8] IF YOU GET A HOW IMPORTANT QUESTION IT IS LOOKING FOR THE FOLLOWING: Developments such as those in communications, have been very useful to police. Developments such as the radio in 1910 and later the two way radio allowed police to

What developments has it led to? The increased use of computers allowed for the creation of the Police National Computer which How have these helped? How important was this event/development. Better technology has been very important, as although better technology has also led to developments in crime it has allowed the police to prevent crime as well as catch those responsible. Why was the use of fingerprinting a turning-point in methods of catching criminals? (8 marks) Things to discuss: First example of forensic science. Leads to police being able to focus more on investigating crimes rather than merely thief catching. One of the first key specialisations and led to further specialisation (forensic science and SOCOs) However, not initially of great use, needed development of training and technology such as computers for greatest benefits to be realised. 1-2 marks

Very weak, vague points made. 3-4 marks Describes aspects of the fingerprinting, gives reasons but does not explain. 5-6 marks Judgement, explains some points, lacks however. 7-8 marks Excellent analysis explaining how this changed the nature of policing and what other developments it led to. How important have developments in transport been in helping police to combat crime in the twentieth century? [8] IF YOU GET A HOW IMPORTANT QUESTION IT IS LOOKING FOR THE FOLLOWING: What developments has it led to? How have these helped? How important was this event/developmen t. Developments such as the introduction of flying squads in 1919 allowed the police to respond much quicker to crimes and incidents...

From the 1970s the use of the police car had become so effective that they began to replace the traditional bobby on the beat/ By the 1960s the introduction of police helicopters also gave them a fresh advantage because... Whilst developments in transport have assisted the police greatly they have also benefitted criminals and led to further challenges for the police such as car theft, vandalism and cloning. Have methods of policing and combating crime always been successful from Tudor times to the present day? 12 (+3) 1-3 MARKS A FEW SENTENCES. Lacks specific detail. 4 MARKS Identifies different periods, a few key facts. 7 MARKS Covers all three periods and identifies change or continuity. 8 MARKS Good detail. Covers all three periods and begins to explain change or continuity. 10 MARKS Excellent, specific

detail. Explains change and continuity between all three periods. 5-6 MARKS Identifies key developments in each period. 9 MARKS Good detail. Covers all three periods and Some explanation of change and continuity linking periods. 11-12 MARKS Excellent, specific detail. Explains change and continuity between all three periods. Makes reasoned judgement. No more than three SPG mistakes. Have methods of policing and combating crime always been successful from Tudor times to the present day? 12 (+3) Paragraph One Tudor policing what methods were used? How successful were they? Paragraph Two

18th Century policing what changed? How successful were they? 20 minutes Paragraph Three 19th Century policing what changed? How successful were they? Paragraph Four Modern policing what methods were used? How successful were they? Paragraph Five Judgement!

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