Covalent Compounds - Weebly

Covalent Compounds - Weebly

Covalent Compounds January 2015 Covalent Compounds Covalent Bond chemical bond that results from sharing electrons Molecule formed when two or more atoms are bonded covalently Naming Binary Compounds

1. First element named first 2. Second elements ending is changed to ide 3. Use prefixes to indicate the number of each atom Examples: N2O dinitrogen monoxide

CCl4 carbon tetrachloride Prefixes 1. Mono 2. Di3. Tri4. Tetra5. Penta6. Hexa7. Hepta8. Octa9. Nona10.Deca- Diatomics There are seven elements that always exist as diatomics Always

exist bonded to themselves in nature Example: H H2 BrONClIF or BrINClHOF Practice Name or give the Formula 1. NF3 1. Carbon disulfide

2. P2O5 2. Selenium 3. F2 3. Nitrogen trihydride 4.

OBr2 4. Sulfur dioxide 5. BF3 5. 6. CH4 Phosphorous pentabromide

7. NO 6. Xenon hexafluoride 8. BN 7. Tetraarsenic decoxide 8. Trinitrogen nonoxide

Answers 1. Nitrogen trifluoride 1. CS2 2. Diphosphorus pentoxide 2. Se

3. NH3 (ammonia) 4. SO2 5. PBr5 3. Fluorine 4. Oxygen dibromide

5. Boron trifluoride 6. Carbon tetrahydride 6. XeF6 7. Nitrogen monoxide 7.

As4O10 8. Boron mononitride 8. N 3 O9 Naming Binary Acids Contains Hydrogen and one other element The first word has the prefix hydro- , the

rest of the first word consists of the root of the second element plus the suffix ic The second word is always acid Example HCl : hydrochloric acid H2S : hydrosulfuric acid Practice HBr

Hydrobromic HI Hydroiodic H3P Hydrophosphoric Hydrofluoric acid Hydroselenic acid Hydrochloric

acid acid HF H2Se HCl acid acid Naming Oxyacid's Contains both a hydrogen and an oxyanion (polyatomic) Keep

the root of the oxyanion Include prefixes per- and hypo- as part of the name If the oxyanion ends in ate replace with ic If the oxyanion ends in ite replace with ous The second word is acid

Example HNO3 : nitric acid HClO : hypochlorous acid Practice H2SO4 Sulfuric HClO4 Perchloric

H3PO4 Phosphoric Carbonic Acetic acid acid nitrous acid acid H2CO3 HC2H3O2

HNO2 acid acid What is the formula for hydroxic acid? H2O HOH Formation of Covalent Bonds Look at Fluorine Fluorine has 7 valence electrons, it needs 1 more electron to form an octet

As two fluorine atoms approach one another attractive forces and repulsive forces act upon the two atoms Once that atoms are close enough together they bond covalently to form a fluorine molecule. Structures Electron Dot Structure Lewis Structure Practice Lewis Structures 1.

PH3 2. H 2S 3. CCl4 Answers 1. or 2. or

3. or Single Covalent Bonds They are also called sigma bonds () Sigma bonds occur when the shared pair of electrons is centered between the two atoms Multiple Covalent Bonds Atoms

can share more than one pair of electrons with another atom Double or Triple bonds Oxygen and Nitrogen Multiple covalent bonds consist of one sigma and at least one pi bond () Pi bonds form when parallel orbitals overlap and share electrons

How many Sigma and Pi bonds are there? C2H4 C2H2 More Lewis Structures 1. NF3 2. CO2 3.

SiF4 4. CH4 5. OCl2 6. NCl3

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