# Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Section 9.1 Molecular Shapes Lewis do not indicate the shapes of molecules; they simply show the number and types of bonds between atoms. The overall shape of a molecule is determined by

its bond angles, the angles made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms in the molecule. Molecular Shapes The shape of any particular ABn molecule can usually be derived from one of five basic geometric structures. A = the central atom B = the bonded atoms

n = the number of bonded atoms Molecular Shapes An AB or AB2 molecule has a linear shape with 180o bond angles. Molecular Shapes An AB3 molecule has a trigonal planar shape with

120o bond angles. Molecular Shapes An AB4 molecule has a tetrahedral shape with 109.5o bond angles. Molecular Shapes An AB5 molecule has a trigonal bipyramidal shape with 90o and 120o bond angles.

Molecular Shapes An AB6 molecule has an octahedral shape with 90o bond angles. Section 9.2 The VSEPR Model The valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model can be used to predict the shape of a molecule based on the fact that electrons repel

one another. Bonding vs. Nonbonding A bonding pair of electrons are located between the nuclei of the two atoms that are bonded together. A nonbonding pair (lone pair) of electrons are located on one atom. Both pairs represent and electron domain which

is a region in which electrons are likely to be found. Multiple Bonds Double and triple bonds only represent one electron domain. VSEPR Model The best arrangement of electron domains is the

one that minimizes the repulsions among the electrons. The arrangement of electrons about the central atom of an ABn molecule or ion is called its electron-domain geometry. The molecular geometry is the arrangement of only the atoms in a molecule or ion nonbonding pairs are excluded from the shape.

Electron Domain vs. Molecular The electron domain geometry for NH3 is tetrahedral, but the molecular geometry is trigonal pyramidal. VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB2: Bonding Nonbonding 2

0 Shape linear VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB3: Bonding Nonbonding 3

0 planar Shape trigonal VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB3: Bonding

2 Nonbonding 1 Shape bent VSEPR Model

Possible shapes for AB4: Bonding Nonbonding 4 0 Shape tetrahedral VSEPR Model

Possible shapes for AB4: Bonding Nonbonding 3 1 Shape trigonal pyramidal VSEPR Model

Possible shapes for AB4: Bonding Nonbonding 2 2 Shape bent Sample Exercise 9.1

Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of a. O3 b. SnCl3- Practice Exercise Predict the electron-domain geometry and the molecular geometry for

a. SeCl2 b. CO32- Bond Angles Because a nonbonding pair experiences less nuclear attraction than bonding pairs, its electron domain is more spread out. As a result, the electron domains for nonbonding

electron pairs exert greater repulsive forces on adjacent electron domains and tend to compress the bond angles. Bond Angles Notice the difference in the bond angles of CH4, NH3, and H2O, all of which have a tetrahedral electron domain geometry.

Bond Angles Multiple bonds contain a higher electron density so they also represent larger electron domains. Expanded Octet Molecules When a central atom has 5 electron domains, then the shape is trigonal bipyramidal. There are two different positions on this

molecule: axial and equatorial. The axial position is at a 90o angle to its neighbors. The equatorial position is at 120o or 90o angles to its neighbors. Axial vs. Equatorial The equatorial position experiences less repulsion, so nonbonding pairs will always occupy the equatorial positions.

VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB5: Bonding Nonbonding 5 0 Shape trigonal bipyramidal

VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB5: Bonding Nonbonding 4 1 Shape

seesaw VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB5: Bonding Nonbonding 3 2 Shape

T-shaped VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB5: Bonding Nonbonding 2 3 Shape

linear VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB6: Bonding Nonbonding 6 0 Shape

octahedral VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB6: Bonding Nonbonding 5 1

Shape square pyramidal VSEPR Model Possible shapes for AB6: Bonding Nonbonding 4 2

Shape square planar Sample Exercise 9.2 Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of a. SF4

b. IF5 Sample Exercise Predict the electron-domain geometry and molecular geometry of a. ClF3 b. ICl4-

Shapes of Large Molecules Larger molecules can be broken into sections to see the shapes involved. Sample Exercise 9.3 Eyedrops used for dry eyes usually contain the water-soluble polymer called poly(vinylalcohol), which is based on the unstable organic molecule

called vinyl alcohol: Predict the approximate values for the H O C and the O C C bond angles. Sample Exercise Predict the H C H ad C C C bond angles in the following molecule, called propyne:

Section 9.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity Remember that bond polarity is a measure of how equally the electrons in a bond are shared between the two atoms of the bond. Bond Polarity For a molecule that consists of more than two atoms, the dipole moment depends on both the

polarities of the individual bonds and the geometry of the molecule. Bond dipoles and dipole moments are vector quantities magnitude and direction. Polarity The overall dipole moment is the vector sum of its bond dipoles. If the dipoles are of equal magnitude but in

opposite directions, then they cancel out making the molecule nonpolar. Polarity If the dipoles do not cancel out, then the molecule is polar. Be sure to consider shape before deciding polarity. Sample Exercise 9.4

Predict whether the following molecules are polar or nonpolar: a. BrCl b. SO2 c. SF6 Practice Exercise

Determine whether the following molecules are polar or nonpolar: a. NF3 b. BCl3 Section 9.4 Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap

In the Lewis theory, covalent bonding occurs when atoms share electrons. In the valence-bond theory, we visualize the buildup of electron density between two nuclei as occurring when the orbitals of the atoms overlap. The overlap of the orbitals allows two electrons of opposite spin to share the common space between the nuclei, forming a covalent bond.

Bond Length The bond length of a covalent bond corresponds to the minimum of the potential energy curve. Section 9.5 Hybrid Orbitals To explain geometries, we assume that the atomic orbitals on an atom mix to form new orbitals called hybrid orbitals.

The process of mixing atomic orbitals is called hybridization. The number of hybrid orbitals must equal the number of atomic orbitals. sp Hybrid Orbitals BeF2 F = ___

1s ___ ___ ___ ___ 2s 2p

This shows that F can bond by filling its 2p sublevel. Be = ___ 1s ___ ___ ___ ___

2s 2p sp Hybrid Orbitals Since Be has no unpaired electrons, it should not form bonds, so one of the electrons is promoted to a 2p orbital. Be = ___

1s ___ 2s ___ ___ ___ 2p

However, this arrangement would not make the two Be F bonds equal because one would involve and s orbital and one would involve a p orbital. sp Hybrid Orbitals We can form 2 hybrid sp orbitals which have 2 lobes like a p orbital, but 1 lobe is much larger than the other.

Be = ___ 1s ___ ___ sp

___ ___ 2p The remaining 2p orbitals remain the same. sp Hybrid Orbital The hybrid orbitals and bonding in BeF2 would look like the following diagrams.

Hybrid Orbitals Whenever we mix a certain number of atomic orbitals, we get the same number of hybrid orbitals. Each of the hybrid orbitals is equivalent to the others but points in a different direction. Thus mixing one 2s and one 2p orbital yields two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals that point in

opposite directions. sp2 Hybrid Orbitals BF3 F = ___ 1s

___ ___ ___ ___ 2s 2p This shows that F can bond by filling its 2p sublevel.

B = ___ 1s ___

2s ___ ___ ___ 2p sp2 Hybrid Orbitals Since B has one unpaired electron, it should only

form one bond, so one of the electrons is promoted to a 2p orbital to allow for 3 bonds. B = ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1s

2s 2p However, this arrangement would not make the three B F bonds equal because one would involve and s orbital and two would involve p orbitals.

sp Hybrid Orbitals 2 We can form 3 hybrid sp2 orbitals which have 2 lobes like a p orbital, but 1 lobe is much larger than the other.

B = ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1s sp2 2p

The remaining 2p orbital remains the same. sp Hybrid Orbitals 2 The hybrid orbitals and bonding in BF3 would look like the following diagrams. sp Hybrid Orbitals

3 CH4 H = ___ 1s This shows that H can bond by filling its 1s sublevel.

C = ___ 1s ___

2s ___ ___ ___ 2p

sp Hybrid Orbitals 3 Since C has two unpaired electrons, it should only form two bonds, so one of the electrons is promoted to a 2p orbital to allow for 4 bonds. C = ___ 1s

___ ___ ___ ___ 2s 2p

However, this arrangement would not make the four C H bonds equal because one would involve and s orbital and three would involve p orbitals. sp Hybrid Orbitals 3 We can form 4 hybrid sp3 orbitals which have 2 lobes like a p orbital, but 1 lobe is much larger

than the other. C = ___ 1s ___ ___ ___ ___

sp3 sp Hybrid Orbitals 3 The hybrid orbitals and bonding in CH4 would look like the following diagrams.

Hybrid Orbital Chart Sample Exercise 9.5 Indicate the hybridization of orbitals employed by the central atom in NH2-. Practice Exercise Predict the electron-domain geometry and the hybridization of the central atom in SO32-.

Section 9.6 Multiple Bonds A sigma (s) bond is a bond that occurs when a line that passes through the two nuclei of the bonded atoms also passes through the middle of the orbital overlap. Multiple Bonds A pi (p) bond is a bond that occurs when the

overlap of the orbitals is perpendicular to the internuclear axis. In a pi bond the overlap occurs above and below the internuclear axis. Pi vs. Sigma Unlike a sigma bond, in a pi bond there is no probability of finding the electron on the internuclear axis.

Since the p orbitals in a pi bond overlap sideways rather than directly facing each other, the total overlap in a pi bond tends to be less than in a sigma bond. This means that pi bonds tend to be weaker than sigma bonds. Type of Bond Single bonds are sigma bonds.

A double bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond. Type of Bond A triple bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds. Since pi bonds occur using unhybridized p orbitals, it can only occur with sp and sp2 hybridization.

Sample Exercise 9.6 Formaldehyde has the Lewis structure Describe how the bonds in formaldehyde are formed in terms of overlaps of appropriate hybridized and unhybridized orbitals. Practice Exercise

Consider the acetonitrile molecule: a. Predict the bond angles around each carbon atom. Practice Exercise Cont b. Describe the hybridization at each carbon atom. c. Determine the total number of s and p bonds in

the molecule. Localized and Delocalized Electrons Localized electrons belong to the two atoms that form the bond. When resonance structures exist for a molecule, the electrons move around and are called delocalized.

Sample Exercise 9.7 Describe the bonding in the nitrate ion, NO3-. Does this ion have delocalized p bonds? Practice Exercise Which of the following molecules or ions will exhibit delocalized bonding: SO3, SO32-, H2CO, O3, NH4+?

Sample Integrative Exercise Elemental sulfur is a yellow solid that consists of S8 molecules. The structure of the S8 molecule is an eight-membered ring. Heating elemental sulfur to high temperatures produces gaseous S2 molecules: S8(s) 4S2(g) a. With respect to electronic structure, which element in the second row of the periodic table is

most similar to sulfur? Sample Integrative Exercise b. Use the VSEPR model to predict the S S S bond angles in S8, and the hybridization at S in S8. Sample Integrative Exercise d. Use average bond enthalpies (Table 8.4) to estimate the enthalpy change for the reaction just

described. Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?