Chapter 5.3

Chapter 5.3

Chapter 5.3 Cooking Methods/Techniques Heat Transfer Heat is a type of energy. When two items of different temperatures have contact, energy, in the form of heat, transfers from the warmer item to the cooler until they both reach the same temperature. Conduction is the transfer of heat from one item to another when the items come into direct contact with each other. Convection is the transfer of heat caused by the movement of molecules (in the air, water, or fat) from a warmer area to a cooler one. Radiation does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked. Instead, heat moves by way of microwave and infrared waves. Infrared heat is created when the heat from a source is absorbed by one material and then radiated out to the food. 5.3

Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 2 Dry-Heat Cooking Methods In dry-heat cooking, food is cooked either by direct heat, like on a grill, or by indirect heat in a closed environment, like in an oven. Broiling is a rapid cooking method that uses high heat from a source located above the food. Grilling is a very simple dry-heat method that is excellent for cooking smaller pieces of food. Roasting and baking are techniques that cook food by surrounding the items with hot, dry air in the oven. Griddling is cooking a food item on a hot, flat surface (known as a griddle) or in a relatively dry, heavy-bottomed fry pan or cast-iron skillet. The sauting method cooks food rapidly in a small amount of fat

over relatively high heat. The fat adds to the flavor. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 3 Dry-Heat Cooking Methods (cont.) Stir-fry is a cooking method closely related to saut. Like saut, it is a quick-cooking, dry-heat method. To pan-fry food, cook it in an oil over less intense heat than that used for sauting or stir-frying. To deep-fry food, bread or batter coat it, immerse (completely cover) it in hot fat, and fry it until it is done: A breading has the same components as batter, but they are not blended together. A standard breading would be seasoned all-purpose flour and an egg and buttermilk dip. The float of the item, the point when the item rises to the surface of the oil and appears golden brown, indicates doneness.

Recovery time is the amount of time it takes oil to reheat to the correct cooking temperature once food is added. The smoking point is the temperature at which fats and oils begin to smoke, which means that the fat has begun to break down. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 4 Moist-Heat Cooking Methods Moist-heat cooking techniques produce food that is delicately flavored and moist, which can be served as a separate course or used as a sauce base. When simmering, completely submerge food in a liquid that is at a constant, moderate temperature. When poaching, cook food between 160F and 180F. The surface of the poaching liquid should show some motion, but

no air bubbles should break the surface. Blanching is a variation of boiling. When blanching, partially cook food and then finish it later. Steaming is cooking food by surrounding it in steam in a confined space such as a steamer basket, steam cabinet, or combi-oven. Direct contact with the steam cooks the food. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 5 Combination-Cooking Methods When the best method for preparing certain food is a combination of dryheat and moist-heat cooking methods, it is called combination cooking. In braising, first sear the food item in hot oil, and then partially cover it in enough liquid to come halfway up the food item. Then cover the pot or pan tightly and finish the

food slowly in the oven or on the stovetop until it is tender. When stewing, first cut the main food item into bite-sized pieces, and either blanch or sear them. As with braising, cook the food in oil first, and then add liquid. Stewing requires more liquid than braising. Cover the food completely while it is simmering. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 6 Sous Vide and Microwave Cooking Sous vide is a method in which food is cooked for a long time, sometimes well over 24 hours. Sous vide is French for under vacuum. Rather than placing food in a slow cooker, cooks place food in airtight plastic bags and then place the bags in water that is hot but

well below boiling point. Many foods can be baked or roasted in a microwave oven. However, microwave ovens do not give the same results as convection or conventional ovens because they cook food with waves of energy or radiationmicrowavesrather than with heat. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 7 Determining Doneness & Plating There are two important qualities that cooks look for to determine a products doneness: Has it achieved the desired texture? Has it reached the minimum internal temperature it

needs to be safe? Portioning is the amount of an item that is served to the guest. Overportioning results in increased cost and lower profit from an item. Plating is the decision about what serving vessel will be used to present the product as well as the layout of the item on the plate or in the bowl and the garnishing of the item. Garnish enhances the food being served. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 8 Section 5.3 Summary Heat is transferred to food in three ways: Conduction Convection Radiation

Types of cooking methods include dry-heat cooking, moist-heat cooking, and combination-cooking methods. Broiling, grilling, roasting, baking, sauting, pan-frying, stir-frying, and deep-frying are kinds of dry-heat cooking. Simmering, poaching, blanching, and steaming are techniques used in moist-heat cooking. Braising and stewing are types of combination cooking. To determine when food is done cooking, identify if the product has its desired texture and minimum internal temperature. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2Equipment and Techniques 9

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