Chapter 3: The Speech Process - Houston Community College

Chapter 3: The Speech Process - Houston Community College

Whip Around What 3 adjectives best describe you? Think about this question and be prepared to share aloud with the class. Chapter 3: The Speech Process The Nature of Sound Hearing is not sound Happens

within your body Sound is an actual physical event in which acoustic energy is generated. Hearing is the way you receive that acoustic energy from the air; changed into meaningful nerve impulses. Sound Consists of vibratory energy that travels through molecules of the

air in ever-widening circles away from the source of the sound. To produce sound need three things: A vibrator A force Medium https:// www.youtube.com/watch? v=eOXuM1J8wNs Example page 24

Frequency and Pitch Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound Frequency is the number of vibrations that occur in a given period of time. Depends on mass, tension, and length Intensity and Loudness Intensity is the measurement of the amount of energy a sound has.

Loudness is the subjective interpretation of intensity. Complexity and Quality Complexity is the overall composition of the relative intensities and frequencies of the pure tones that make up a complex wave. Quality is based on the physical characteristics of frequency, intensity, phrase, etc. Figure 3.3 on page 27

5 Processes in Producing Speech Sounds 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Innervation Breathing Phonation Resonance Articulation Innervation Innervation

Process of supplying nerve impulses to muscles Involves: Abdomen Chest (control breathing; larynx (production of voice) Pharynx Larynx Mouth (resonate sounds); Muscles that control the tongue, palate, and lips (articulation) Example: Four score and seven years ago 4 tongue movements per word

120 words per minute we are able to perform 480 tongue movements for each minute of speech Breathing Breathing is used as a force to move the vibrator. Defined as the process of bringing air into the lungs and forcing it out. Breathing mechanism (figure 3.4 page 29)

Breathing for speech Take in the amount of air you need for the number of words you need to say, and take it in as quickly as possible. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WMt_1j w47Q Phonation Phonation is the production of sound using the larynx

Figure 3.8 page 33 Put fingers on Adams apple and rub up and down to feel the ridges. This is your larynx. Phonation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. Production of sound using the larynx (page 33) Air is inhaled. The vocal folds meet, completely closing the larynx and stopping the airflow. The diaphragm and chest muscles relax; the abdominal muscles slowly contract. Air pressure builds up below the vocal folds. Air pressure increases until it overcomes the muscular forces holding the vocal folds closed. Air escapes in very rapid bursts, creating waves of sound in the air above the vocal folds. After each burst, the air pressure decreases and the vocal folds close, causing the pressure to build up again. In this way, the cycle repeats. You continue to hold the vocal folds closed and force air between them for as long as you want to phonate.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aoa_N1vQS4M Resonance Resonance is the amplification and modification of sound by the cavities of the vocal tract. Larynx, pharynx, sinuses, oral cavity, and nasal cavity Example of soda bottle

Pitch will vary with the amount of air in the bottle The resonators (cavities in head and neck) are used to transform buzz to voice) Articulation Articulation is the production of speech sounds as a result of movement of the structures of the vocal track.

Tongue, teeth, lips, gum ridge, hard palate, soft palate, lower jaw, and glottis (space between vocal folds). Figure 3-11 page 37-41 Saw hee-haw Say kick Say tea https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBEYaFq dHS8 Important Note You need to be familiar

with the models on pages 35 and 37!!!!! Activity Pick a partner to work with. You and your partner will pick ONE concept that we discussed today to re-teach to the class. You must re-teach the concept in a different form. Examples: Short skit Poem Song and dance Drawing Or any other idea that you both may have

Next Time Chapter 4 Chapter 5

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