# Chapter 3 Matter and Atomic Structure

CHAPTER 3 MATTER AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE Questions of the Day 1/9/14 1. Which of the following is defined as something that cannot be broken down into simpler substances? A. Mixture C. Compound B. Element D. Panda 2. What of the following is the smallest part of a substance which still has the characteristics of that

substance? A. Proton C. Atom B. Element D. Quark 3. How many protons does Helium have? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Todays Objectives Define and describe element, atom, and the periodic table Identify and describe the sub-atomic particles within

atoms Use the atomic number and mass number of elements to create diagrams of their atoms What Makes Up All Matter? Element Something that cant be broken down into simpler pieces. Exp: Gold Can be melted, divided into small pieces, hammered flat.still gold 92 Naturally Occurring

20 Man-made Atom The smallest part of the element that still has all of the same characteristics of the element. Atoms are made up of 1). Protons 2). Neutrons 3). Electrons Parts of an Atom Proton Small particle found inside the

nucleus of an atom with a positive charge Usually represented by a plus sign when atoms are drawn out. Atomic Number = Tells you the number of protons an element has. Located above the element abbreviation on the periodic table of elements. Periodic Table is organized by atomic number. You cannot change the number of protons

found within an atom without changing the element you are working with. Parts of an Atom Neutrons Small particle found inside the nucleus of an atom with a neutral charge/ no charge Hold together all the positive charges in the nucleus. Act as the glue to prevent all the positive charges from repelling each other. Stabilizes the nucleus

Have to use a little subtraction to find the number of neutrons. Mass Number The rounded whole number located beneath the abbreviation of the element. Round the decimal point to the nearest whole number to obtain the mass number (the exact numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an particular atom). Use the Mass Number of an

element to find the number of neutrons by subtracting the number of protons (Atomic Number) from it. Parts of an Atom Electrons Smallest particle with a negative charge found organized into clouds outside the nucleus of an atom. For all normal atoms you

can find the number of electrons because positive and negative charges must cancel out. So, an atom must have the same number of protons and electrons. Atomic Number also tells you the number of electrons. Parts of an Atom Electron Arrangement These negative particles

Electrons are negatively are held in by their attraction to the positively charged nucleus. charged and want to repel each other. Remember opposites attract they are as far away from another electron as possible. But, usually you cant fit all of the electrons right

around the nucleus. Why? They sort themselves so Question of the Day 1/10/14 1. How many protons does the element Silver have? Answer: 47 2. How many neutrons does the element Phosphorous have? Answer: 16 Todays Objectives Practice using the Periodic Table to determine an atoms proton, electron, and neutron counts. Use the atomic number and atomic mass number of

elements to create diagrams of their atoms Parts of an Atom Electron Arrangement The best arrangement for electrons ends up with them dividing among energy levels and because electrons repel each other you can only have a certain number of electrons in any energy level. Because electrons repel each other you can only have a certain number of electrons in any energy level.

Energy Level Electron Assignment Energy Level Max number of electrons 1st Shell (closest to the nucleus) 2 2nd Shell 8 3rd Shell

8 Parts of an Atom Valence Electrons The electrons that are in the energy level farthest away from the nucleus. These electrons give us a lot of information about the element. How/If it is reactive. Chemical Properties

Question of the Day 1/13/14 1. How many valence electrons does Magnesium have? Answer: 2 2. How many valence electrons does Beryllium have? Answer: 2 3. Without drawing or calculating it out, (look at the trend in your periodic table from questions 1 and 2), take an educated guess on how many valence electrons Strontium has. Answer: 2 The trend is the vertical grouping of these elements. All elements in a vertical group have the same number of valence electrons. You do not need your clicker today! Find a blank sheet of paper (Not notebook! No lines!) From yourself

From the black files under the bookshelf Study/prepare for quiz Any questions? Quiz - On your blank piece of paper: For the element: Aluminum Identify the total number of Protons -> P = _____ Identify the total number of Neutrons -> N = _____ Identify the total number of Electrons -> E = _____ Draw the Bohr Diagram You do not need to draw the protons or neutrons inside the nucleus You may simply leave the inside of the nucleus blank Draw the Lewis Diagram also known as the Electron Dot Diagram After your are done, put your paper in the wire basket. Be sure

your name is on it! Grab 2 new papers. Please remain quiet while others finish their quizzes. You may read (check out my book/magazine selection) or do some other quiet activity. Periodic Table Vocabulary Periods = Rows that travel across the periodic table horizontally Groups = Columns of elements that are grouped vertically on the periodic table. Periodic Table Trends

For Atoms, 8 is the magic number of valence electrons they want (or in hydrogen and heliums case ~ 2). Group 1: Alkali Metals All of these elements have 1 electron in their outer shells. Like to get rid of their electron. Highly reactive Metals Low Density

Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals All of the elements have 2 electrons in their valence shell. Like to get rid of their electrons. Reactive Silver Colored Soft Metals Groups 3-12 Transition Elements Have a vast array of

properties Characteristics vary greatly Group 13 and 14 13 is the Boron family 14 is the Carbon family Has 3 electrons in its Has 4 electrons in their valence shell. Most of these elements like to share electrons instead of getting rid of

them. valence shell. Really like to share their electrons. Group 15: The Pnictogens Have 5 electrons in their valence shell Like to share instead of getting rid of their electrons. Very Stable Group 16 and 17 16 = Chalcogens

Have 6 valence shell electrons Most elements in this family like to steal electrons. 17 = Halogens Have 7 electrons in their valence shell. Elements in this family really like to steal electrons. Elements in all states of matter Group 18: The Noble Gases Why are these so

Odorless special/unique? Content with the number of electrons they have. Colorless Full valence shell of 8. Low Reactivity Very Few Compounds Exist Electron Arrangement Examples

Hydrogen = atomic number 1 1p Helium = atomic number 2 2p Lithium = atomic number 3 3p Beryillium = atomic number 4 4p Electron Arrangement Examples

Carbon = Atomic number 6 Neon = Atomic number 10 6p Oxygen = Atomic number 8 8p 10 p Sodium = Atomic number 11 11 p Ionic Bonds Electron Exchange

Some atoms bond by gaining or losing electrons. Opposites Attract If an atom gains electrons then it will be negative Anions If an atom loses electrons then it Ion = an atom with more or less electrons.

will be positive. Cations - cats are positive people Once atoms become charged they attract Positive and Negative charges attract. Question of the Day 1/15/14 1. In order to get to the magic number 8, what does Calcium want to do? A. Give 2 - correct answer C. Steal 2

B. Give 1 D. Steal 1 2. A cation is a A. Negatively charged ion B. Negatively charged isotope C. Positively charged ioncorrect D. Positively charged isotope 3. What is the official name of Group 18? A. Pnictogens B. Noble Gasescorrect C. Boron Group D. Alkaline Earth Metals Ionic Poker For each round, say a persons name aloud. Decide what the element on the card wants to do

Give 2 or Steal 2 etc Say it aloud. Do that action with the person whose name you called at the beginning of the round. If you are incorrect, you must give everyone in the group the correct amount (even if it is supposed to be steal) Be the highest chip holder at the end of the class period. Ionic Poker Rules Change For each round, say a persons name aloud. Decide what the element on the card becomes Becomes Positive 2 or Negative 2 Say it aloud. Do that action with the person whose name you called at the beginning of the round. If you are incorrect, you must give everyone in the group the correct amount (even if it is supposed to be steal).

If the other person does the wrong action, he/she has to give everyone in the group the correct amount. Be the highest chip holder at the end of the class period. Question of the Day 1/16/17 1. What is the correct symbol for the Magnesium ion? A. Mg2+ B. Mg+2 C. Mg2D. Mg1+ 2. What does the element Aluminum want to do? A. Give 3 B. Steal 3 C. Give 5 C. Steal 5 3. What is the official name of Group 2? A. Alkali Metals B. Alkaline Earth Metals

C. Noble Gases D. Chalcogens Question of the Day 1/17/14 1. What would the symbol for the Bromine ion look like? A. Br2+ B. Br1 C. Br1+ D. Br2 2. What is the official name for Group 17? A. Halogens B. Boron Group C. Chalcogens D. Pcnitogens Making Compounds Compounds A compound is a

substance made of atoms from 2 or more different elements. Chemical Bond = the forces that hold elements together in compounds. Makes sure that the valence shells of elements are filled. Most compounds are very different from the elements that make them

up. Exp Water and Salt Occurs through giving and receiving electrons or by sharing electrons Ionic Bonds Once atoms become ions positive and negative charges attract. Each atom is charged; either positive or negative.

But, the compound is The attraction between two atoms with opposite charges is called an Ionic Bond. Strongest type of bond. neutral. Positive and negative charges cancel out. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?

v=xTx_DWboEVs Ionic Bond Practice We have a transfer of electrons between atoms going on Sodium Chloride Table Salt NaCl More Practice Ionic Bond Build LiF Make Lithium (Li) and

Fluorine (F) join in an ionic bond. Ionic Bon Build Magnesium Chloride Make Magnesium (Mg) and Chlorine (Cl) join in an ionic bond Mg2+ Cl1 MgCl2 Question of the Day 1. What is the charge on a Calcium (Ca) ion? A. 2+

B. 2 C. 1+ D. 1 2. What does Sodium (Na) want to do? A. Steal one B. Give one C. Steal two C. Give two 3. How many electron shells (energy levels) does Phosphorous (P) have? A. 1 C. 3 B. 2 D. 4 Covalent Bonds In a covalent bond, atoms fill up their valence shells by

sharing electrons. When two atoms are held together by a shared pair of electrons we call this process a covalent bond. Molecule = 2 or more elements held together by a covalent bond. 2.8 Covalent bonds Bond Strength Ionic > Covalent!! Question of the day 1. What word should you pair with covalent?

A. Sharing B. Stealing C. Giving D. Penguins 2. If you were going to bond Calcium (Ca) and Fluorine (F), how many of each would you need? A. 2 Ca; 1 F C. 1 Ca; 1 F B. 2 Ca; 2 F D. 1 Ca; 2 F Different Types of Atoms Isotopes What is an isotope? When an element has more or

less neutrons then it is supposed to. Gains or loses neutrons due to high energy particle interactions What Stays the Same? The number of protons does not change. The element identity would change. The number of electrons does not change.

Has the same properties No charge is present Atom weighs less or more Mass Number individual atoms mass This is what you used to find neutron count before What is an individual atoms mass number? Protons Mass + Neutrons Mass + Electrons Mass But electrons dont matter! 1,000,000,000 + 1,000,000,000 + 0.000000000000001 = 2,000,000,000 Isotopes Mass Number This averaging is why we see decimals on the periodic table for the elements mass number.

Existence We know that isotopes exist because we have observed them in nature. Scientists averaged out all of the mass numbers they discovered of an element and came up with atomic mass. Atomic Mass = The average mass number for an element. Abundance matters!!!! http

://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=Jdtt3LsodAQ Isotope Practice Lithium: Make a normal atom of Lithium (Li)(Lithium-7) Transform this normal atom into the isotope of Lithium-6 Fluorine: Make a normal atom of Fluorine ( F) (Fluorine- 19) Transform this normal atom into Fluorine-17 Phosphorus: Make a normal atom of Phosphorus (P) (Phosphorus-31) Transform this normal atom into Phosphorus-27

Protons =M side up Neutrons = Blank side Electrons = Pennies Isotopes Existence How do isotopes form? Some Isotopes already exist Others are formed by collision of particles. In upper layers of the atmosphere. Matter is exposed to intense light; UV rays, gamma rays, and x-rays.

These intense rays can break matter up and force particles in or knock particles out. General Rule: The larger the elements nucleus the harder it is for it to hold on to an extra neutron. Radioactivity All isotopes eventual want to return to their normal state Some Isotopes take a very long time to get back to their normal number of

neutrons. We call these isotopes stable. They can stay as isotopes for a long time Exp: Carbon Isotopes 13, Oxygen 17 Other isotopes return to their normal number of neutrons very quickly These Isotopes are unstable These want to get back to their normal amount of neutrons badly. Exp: Radium, Palonium Begin to throw away particles This can release lots of energy.

Unstable Isotopes If Isotopes get rid of their neutrons slowly, then the emit energy (radiation) slowly over time. If Isotopes throw away their neutrons quickly, then they emit huge amounts of energy quickly. We call this radioactivity Nuclear Bombs Uranium 235 + 1 neutron => Uranium 236

Very unstable Decays really quickly but goes overboard (gives off too many neutrons) releasing a ton of energy in the process Creates a chain reaction of neutrons hitting other uranium 235 atoms which creates more neutrons which hit other uranium 235 atoms, etc. Radioactive Isotopes Half-Life The amount of time it take for half of the sample (half of the atoms) to decay. Long Half-Life = Long time for half of atoms of a sample

to decay = Stable Short Half Life = Short time for half of atoms of a sample to decay = Unstable Half-life

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