Chapter 2 Limits and the Derivative Section 4 The Derivative Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Objectives for Section 2.4 The Derivative The student will be able to calculate rate of change. The student will be able to calculate slope of the tangent

line. The student will be able to interpret the meaning of the derivative. The student will be able to identify the nonexistence of the derivative. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 2 The Rate of Change For y = f (x), the average rate of change from x = a to x = a + h is

f ( a h) f ( a ) , h 0 h The above expression is also called a difference quotient. It can be interpreted as the slope of a secant. See the picture on the next slide for illustration. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 3 Visual Interpretation Q

f (a + h) f (a) f ( a h) f ( a ) h slope Average rate of change = slope of the secant line through P and Q P h Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 4

Example The revenue generated by producing and selling widgets is given by R(x) = x (75 3x) for 0 x 20. What is the change in revenue if production changes from 9 to 12? Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 5 Example The revenue generated by producing and selling widgets is given by R(x) = x (75 3x) for 0 x 20. What is the change in revenue if production changes from 9

to 12? R(12) R(9) = $468 $432 = $36. Increasing production from 9 to 12 will increase revenue by $36. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 6 Example (continued) The revenue is R(x) = x (75 3x) for 0 x 20. What is the average rate of change in revenue (per unit change in x) if production changes from 9 to 12? Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 7 Example (continued) The revenue is R(x) = x (75 3x) for 0 x 20. What is the average rate of change in revenue (per unit change in x) if production changes from 9 to 12? To find the average rate of change we divide the change in revenue by the change in production: R (12) R (9) 36 12 12 9 3 Thus the average change in revenue is $12 when production is increased from 9 to 12.

Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 8 The Instantaneous Rate of Change Consider the function y = f (x) only near the point P = (a, f (a)). f ( a h) f ( a ) The difference quotient , h 0 h gives the average rate of change of f over the interval [a, a+h]. If we make h smaller and smaller, in the limit we obtain the instantaneous rate of change of the function at the point P: lim

h 0 f ( a h) f ( a ) h Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 9 Visual Interpretation Q Tangent Slope of tangent = instantaneous rate of change.

f (a + h) f (a) P lim f ( a h) f ( a ) h 0 h h Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. Let h approach 0 10

10 Instantaneous Rate of Change Given y = f (x), the instantaneous rate of change at x = a is f ( a h) f ( a ) lim h 0 h provided that the limit exists. It can be interpreted as the slope of the tangent at the point (a, f (a)). See illustration on previous slide. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 11

11 The Derivative For y = f (x), we define the derivative of f at x, denoted f (x), to be f (x) lim h 0 f (x h) f (x) h if the limit exists. If f (a) exists, we call f differentiable at a. If f (x) exist for each x in the open interval (a, b), then f is said to be differentiable over (a, b).

Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 12 Interpretations of the Derivative If f is a function, then f is a new function with the following interpretations: For each x in the domain of f , f (x) is the slope of the line tangent to the graph of f at the point (x, f (x)). For each x in the domain of f , f (x) is the instantaneous rate of change of y = f (x) with respect to x. If f (x) is the position of a moving object at time x, then v = f (x) is the velocity of the object at that time.

Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 13 Finding the Derivative To find f (x), we use a four-step process: Step 1. Find f (x + h) Step 2. Find f (x + h) f (x) Step 3. Find f ( x h) f ( x) h Step 4. Find hlim 0 f ( x h) f ( x ) h

Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 14 Example Find the derivative of f (x) = x 2 3x. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 15 Example Find the derivative of f (x) = x 2 3x.

Step 1. f (x + h) = (x + h)2 3(x + h) = x2 + 2xh + h2 3x 3h Step 2. Find f (x + h) f (x) = 2xh + h2 3h 2 f ( x h ) f ( x ) 2 xh h

3h Step 3. Find 2 x h 3 h h Step 4. Find lim h 0 f ( x h) f ( x ) lim 2 x h 3 2 x 3 h 0 h

Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 16 Example Find the slope of the tangent to the graph of f (x) = x 2 3x at x = 0, x = 2, and x = 3. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 17 Example Find the slope of the tangent to the graph of f (x) = x 2 3x

at x = 0, x = 2, and x = 3. Solution: In example 2 we found the derivative of this function at x to be f (x) = 2x 3 Hence f (0) = 3 f (2) = 1, and f (3) = 3 Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 18 Graphing Calculators Most graphing calculators have a built-in numerical differentiation routine that will

approximate numerically the values of f (x) for any given value of x. Some graphing calculators have a built-in symbolic differentiation routine that will find an algebraic formula for the derivative, and then evaluate this formula at indicated values of x. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 19 Example We know that the derivative of f (x) = x 2 3x is f (x) = 2x 3. Verify this for x = 2 using a graphing calculator. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 20 Example We know that the derivative of f (x) = x 2 3x is f (x) = 2x 3. Verify this for x = 2 using a graphing calculator. Using dy/dx under the calc menu. Using tangent under the draw menu. slope tangent equation Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 21 Example Find the derivative of f (x) = 2x 3x2 using a graphing calculator with a symbolic differentiation routine. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 22 Example Find the derivative of f (x) = 2x 3x2 using a graphing calculator with a symbolic differentiation routine.

Using algebraic differentiation under the home calc menu. derivative Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 23 Example Find the derivative of f (x) = 2x 3x2 using the four-step process. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 24

24 Example Find the derivative of f (x) = 2x 3x2 using the four-step process. Step 1. f (x + h) = 2(x + h) 3(x + h)2 Step 2. f (x + h) f (x) = 2h 6xh 3h2 Step 3. Step 4. f ( x h) f ( x) 2 x 6 xh 3h 2 2 6 x 3h h h lim 2 6 x 3h 2 6 x

h 0 Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 25 25 Nonexistence of the Derivative The existence of a derivative at x = a depends on the existence of the limit f (a) lim h 0 f (a h) f (a) h

If the limit does not exist, we say that the function is nondifferentiable at x = a, or f (a) does not exist. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 26 Nonexistence of the Derivative (continued) Some of the reasons why the derivative of a function may not exist at x = a are The graph of f has a hole or break at x = a, or The graph of f has a sharp corner at x = a, or The graph of f has a vertical tangent at x = a.

Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 27 27 Summary For y = f (x), we defined the derivative of f at x, denoted f (x), to be f (x) lim h 0 f (x h) f (x) h

if the limit exists. We have seen how to find the derivative algebraically, using the four-step process. Copyright 2015, 2011, and 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 28 28