BLOOD TRANSFUSION Dr. Khaled Daradka University Of Jordan School Of Medicine General Surgery Department A Transfusion Dilemma A 72 year old woman presents to ER with a nosebleed. This is her second visit in 24 hours with the same complaint. Her nose is packed and the bleeding stops. Past history includes congestive heart failure and a transient

ischemic attack. She takes Lasix, Isordil and aspirin. A CBC is requested. The questions?? Hgb = 8.5g/dL WBC = 6.2 Platelets = 95 x 109/L Would you recommend a red cell transfusion before sending her home? What about a platelet transfusion? What are the risks and benefits of Transfusion?

Vampire therapy Throughout history, cultures across the globe have extolled the properties of youthful blood, with children sacrificed and the blood of young warriors drunk by

the victors. could reverse ageing!!! Specailly youthful bld Blood Management Improved Patient Outcomes Patient

Centered Blood Conservation Appropriate Transfusion Practices Blood management is the appropriate provision and use of blood, its components and derivatives, and strategies to reduce or avoid the need for a blood transfusion.

BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS Over 400 red cell antigens described Each antigen is defined by a specific antibody Antigens are divided into blood group systems > 25 systems The most important blood group system ABO ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells and IgM antibodies present in the serum

Why do we have Anti-A or Anti-B Antibodies??? They are not present in the newborn They develop in the first years of life Exposure to plant, bacterial, viral antigens provokes this response Natural occurring antibodies Major Blood Groups Rhesus

47 Antigens make up the Rhesus Blood Group The most significant is the D antigen There is no naturally occurring Anti D Production of Anti D in the RH negative recipient requires previous exposure to the D antigen (in utero or by transfusion) Why do we care? Intravascular hemolysis of donor RBCs Population Distribution of Major Blood Groups

O bld group Rh pos 38% A bld group Rh pos 34% B bld group Rh pos 9% AB bld group Rh pos 3% 45% Rh neg 7%

40% Rh neg 6% 11% Rh neg 2% 4% Rh neg 1% Blood Donation Whole blood is collected from healthy donors who are required to meet strict criteria concerning: Medical and Physical health

Sexual behavior Drug use Travel to areas of endemic disease (e.g., malaria) Have a hemoglobin level which meets the established standard. Wait 2 to 3 months before giving another donation of whole blood. Blood testing Donated blood is tested by many methods, but the core tests recommended by the World Health Organization are these

four: Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibody to Hepatitis C Antibody to HIV, usually subtypes 1 and 2 Serologic test for Syphilis

Alternatives to homologous transfusion Autologous Predonations occurs when a person donates his or her own blood for personal use, transfusion reactions may still occur. Isovolemic Hemodilution the patient's blood is collected prior to surgery and replaced with a plasma expander. The theory is that any bleeding during surgery will lose fewer RBC's. Then the previously collected, higher hematocrit blood can be given back.

Intraoperative autotransfusion (Cell Saver) to collect blood in the operative field during surgery, wash it, and return it to the patient. This will work as long as the operative field is not contaminated with bacteria or with malignant cells. Wound drainage blood is collected from cavities (such as a joint space into which bleeding has occurred) and returned through a filter. Blood Products Available


cells 100 ml SAGM 02 transport 1-6 oC ~ 42 days Platelets 200-300 ml plasma SDP(single

donor,apheresis ) 300x109platelet s/unit Buffy coat derived (4 donors, 1 plasma) Thrombocytopenia/ Dysfunctional

Platelets 22oC x 5 days PRODUCT VOLUME INDICATION STORAGE Frozen Plasma

(FFP) 100 - 150 ml/unit All coagulation factors -20oC x 12 months Cryoprecipitate 10-15ml/unit

VWF VIII:c Fibrinogen XIII Albumin/ Pentaspan/ Voluven Variable

Volume expansion Blood Typing and Cross-Match BLOOD TYPING tests the recipients RBCs for antigens and SCREENS the recipient's serum for antibodies. CROSS MATCHING done by mixing the recipients serum with the donor's RBCs to check for performed antibodies. Type O/RH negative is a universal donor.

Principles Of Blood Component Therapy Be aware of the indications, risks and benefits of the transfused product The cause of the deficiency should be identified and alternatives to transfusion considered Only the deficient component should be replaced The product should be as safe as possible Informed consent and documentation should be part of the process

What hgb do you need? Critical Hematocrit And O2D Effect of Restrictive versus Liberal RBC Transfusion Regimens in Critically Ill Patients NEJM 1999 Prospect randomized study (TRICC study-Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care)

838 patients with Hgb < 9.0 Randomized to: Restrictive regimen 22% Hospital Mortality Transfused if hemoglobin < 7.0, maintained at 7-9 Liberal regimen 28% Hospital Mortality Transfused if < 10.0, maintained 10-12 So Hgb 7 is the trigger?

Indicators for Considering RBC Transfusion (in absence of continued bleeding) Normovolemic anemia (Hgb7) WITH signs or symptoms of inadequate oxygen delivery Possible EXCEPTIONS to Hb=7 Acute MI or acute coronary syndrome NICU Septic shock General Guidelines for Platelet Transfusion

Bone Marrow Failure Risk of spontaneous bleeding <10 x 109/L Prophylaxis for Surgery invasive procedures: <50 x 109/L blood loss > 500ml or major surgery neurosurgery <100 x 109/L

Massive transfusion Platelet function disorders variable UK Healthcare 2010 Guide for Blood Component Transfusion PRBCs Hct < 21% + symptoms/signs of inadequate oxygen delivery FFP INR 1.5 or PTT 46sec + active bleeding and cant be

corrected by Vitamin K Platelets <50,000 during and for 24 hours following surgery <10,000 in non-bleeding patient Cryoprecipitate Fibrinogen <100 mg/dl Risks of Blood Transfusion infevtion (HIV, HBV, HCV, CMV, bacteria, parasites) Transfusion reactions 1. Allergic reactions.. To donated plasma proteins

2. Febrile non Hemolytic reactions.. To donated WBCs 3. Hemolytic reactions.. fatal 4. Delayed hemolytic.. To other than ABO 5. Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) 6. Graft vs host disease GVHD.. To immunocompetent T cells Risks of Blood Transfusion Transfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) Massive bld transfusion: Electrolyte abnormalities: hypocalcaemia, hyperkalemia citrate toxicity

hypothermia coagulopathy Transfusion Reactions Hemolytic Reactions o the recipient's serum contains antibodies directed against the corresponding antigen found on donor red blood cells. o can be an ABO incompatibility or an incompatibility related to a different blood group antigen. o Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) o renal failure

o death are not uncommon following this type of reaction. o The most common cause for a major hemolytic transfusion reaction is a clerical error!!! Transfusion Reactions Allergic Reactions o Allergic reactions to donated plasma proteins can range from complaints of hives and itching to anaphylaxis. o Most common A Transfusion Dilemma

A 72 year old woman presents to ER with a nosebleed. This is her second visit in 24 hours with the same complaint. Her nose is packed and the bleeding stops. Past history includes congestive heart failure and a transient ischemic attack. She takes Lasix, Isordil and aspirin. A CBC is requested. Would you recommend a Red Cell Transfusion ? Hb 85g/L but likely to rebleed? history of cardiac disease history of TIA

currently on ASA What about a platelet transfusion? Platelets 95 x 109/L but currently on ASA ? PT/PTT why thrombocytopenic? Red cell transfusion - maybe

assess clinical status ECG assess distance from home observation in ER ensure sample available for a Type and Hold Platelet transfusion not indicated hold ASA

assess PT/PTT referral for assessment of low platelets Case A 67 y/o M. CAD s/p CABG, CKD stage III, HTN, DM is admitted for fever, cough, and SOB. He is diagnosed with pneumonia. Hemoglobin at admission is 8.2. There is no evidence of active bleeding. At baseline the patient is able to climb 2 flights of stairs without SOB or CP. During hospitalization, the patient received multiple blood draws. After 4 days, Pts symptoms have improved. He is AF, HR is 70, BP 120/80, RR 20, 95% on RA. You

are planning discharge today. Hemoglobin this morning is 7.3. What is the best approach to managing this pts Anemia? Case A) B) C) D) Transfuse 2 units PRBC Transfuse to goal Hg >10

Recheck Hg/Hct Discharge with outpatient follow-up Blood transfusion is not indicated in this patient at this time. His anemia is asymptomatic. He has a h/o CAD but no active ischemia. His Hg is likely not lab error given that he has been in the hospital for multiple days and has received numerous blood draws likely leading to phlebotomy associated anemia.

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