V.C. Muscular Stability Abdominal muscles on ventral side: 1. Prevent V.C. hyperextension 2. Pull pelvis toward sternum 3. Pull thorax toward pelvis Erector Spinae muscles on dorsal side: 1. Compress V.C. 2. Holds V.C. together

CONTRALATERAL Trunk Flexion moving trunk away from throwing arm FIG 7.4 page 233

IPSILATERAL Trunk Flexion moving trunk towards the throwing arm UNDERARM Throw Pattern LORDOSIS

Pelvis tilted towards anterior often due to weak abdominal muscles treatment: 1. stretch hip muscles [extensors and flexors] 2. strengthen abdominals and hip flexors SCOLIOSIS mediolateral curvature of V.C. [S curve] often caused by one leg shorter than other

treatment of functional problem: 1. Stretch Concave side ) interior of curve 2. Strengthen Convex side ) exterior of curve KYPHOSIS exaggerated curve of V.C. anterior/posterior bending forward of thoracic area along with

flattening of lumbar curve treatment: 1. Strengthen V.C. extensors 2. Stretch V.C. flexors [thoracic area] Rounded Shoulders Treatment: 1. Strengthen retractors of shoulder girdle 2. Stretch protractors of shoulder girdle

Abdominals SIT UPS Hip Flexors move vertebral column if pelvis is fixed or stabilized

move thighs if pelvis is fixed/stabilized move pelvis if vertebral column is fixed or stabilized

move pelvis if thighs are fixed/stabilized Long Lying Sit-Up: FIG 7.6a page 237 If Abdominals are Strong:

Abdominals are the prime mover Abdominals ALONE flex the Vertebral Column Hip Flexors stabilize pelvis ( not flex V.C.) Long Lying Sit-Up: FIG 7.6a If Abdominals are WEAK: Abdominals alone cannot flex V.C. (Abs only assist)

Hip Flexors are the prime movers Hip Flexors pull pelvis and lumbar disks compress Leg Lifts: FIG 7.6b If Abdominals are WEAK: Abdominals cannot stabilize pelvis (prevent flexing) Pelvis flexes due to pull of Hip Flexors Lower Back hyperextends, lumbar disks compress

This exercise requires very strong abdominals Bent Leg or Curl Sit-Up: FIG 7.6c Hip Flexors are shortened (Length/Tension principle) H.F. stabilize pelvis (do not flex pelvis) Abdominals must do most if not all of the work minimizes hyperextension of lumbar vertebrae

Snap-Up: FIG 7.6d simultaneous Hip and V.C. flexion requires Torque from Abdominals in 2 ways: 1. flexion of the Vertebral Column 2. stabilize Pelvis to prevent it rotating forward

Bent Leg Curl Sit Up on Incline Board FIG 7.6e page 237 incline position allows resistive T to have ROM g depending on of board, T may never reach 0 g CRUNCH SIT-UP

Non-Supported Supported More difficult Less difficult from KIN 300/301 Exercise Book by Natascha Wesch page 48

CRUNCH SIT-UP: non-supported Stabilizers activated Pelvis flat or tilted forward no V.C. hyperextension Lumbar HYPERFLEXION FIG 4.18a page 163

FIG 4.16c page 161 Lumbar HYPEREXTENSION FIG 7.9 page 242 FIG 7.10

page 242

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