BIOLOGY Unit 4 Notes: Types of Reproduction (1) Types of Reproduction
SEXUAL ASEXUAL Requires 2 parent organisms. Sperm + Egg fertilize one another to form a
Zygote. The offspring are genetically unique from the parents, but contain a random combination of parental genes. Used by humans, other animals and plants. Requires 1 parent organism.
The single organism makes a copy of itself and divides. The offspring are genetically identical to the parent. Pros Produces genetically different babies, increasing the survival rate of the
population. Cons Requires a lot of time and effort. Pros Extremely efficient. Cons If the parent has genetic defects / deficiencies, all of its offspring will also be weak.
Used by yeast, sponges, and bacteria. (2) Types of Asexual Reproduction: Binary Fission: The organism makes an identical copy of itself, divides and splits in two.
Budding: The parent organism develops a small bud off its side, which develops into an exact copy. (3) Bacteria & Conjugation Bacterial Conjugation: The process by which bacteria exchange extra DNA structures (called
plasmids) which can increase resistance to antibiotics. When Does This Happen In Us? If you dont finish a full round of antibiotics This allows a mix of weaker bacteria to survive, along with the more fit ones (with the plasmids). Bacteria can then pass on their extra special DNA. This makes more bacteria resistant to your medicine.
What is the Long Term Concern? Some wonder if our overuse of antibacterial body products and antibiotic medicines could be promoting the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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