Learning Objectives Introduce Just Culture principles Learn how Just Culture principles can augment CUSP Review key
steps of the CUSP Toolkit 2 Introduction to Just Culture Principles 3 Understand Just Culture 4
Just Culture1 A system that: - Holds itself accountable - Holds staff members accountable - Has staff members who hold themselves accountable 5 Understanding Risk and Human Behavior1 Human Error:
Inadvertently completing the wrong action; slip, lapse, mistake At-Risk Behavior: Choosing to behave in a way that increases risk where risk is not recognized, or is mistakenly believed to be justified
Reckless Behavior: Choosing to consciously disregard a substantial and unjustifiable risk 6 Managing Error and Risk1 Human Error
At-Risk Behavior Reckless Behavior Product of our current system design and behavioral choices A choice: risk believed insignificant or justified
Conscious disregard of substantial and unjustifiable risk Manage through: Removal of incentives for atrisk behaviors Creation of incentives for healthy behaviors Situational awareness
Manage through: Remedial action Punitive action Manage through changes in: Choices Processes Procedures Training Design Environment Console
Coach Punish 7 Systems and Behaviors Work Together To Improve Outcomes1 System Design Mission, Values, and Expectations
Improved Outcomes Behavioral Choices Learning Systems Accountability and Justice 8
Accountability Engineering System Design to Support Behavior Choices1 Punitive Culture: Transparency is impossible Blame-Free Culture: No accountability
Just Culture: Optimally supports a system of safety 10 Leadership Teams Role in Applying Just Culture Principles Have a procedure in place for employees to follow Ensure employees are properly trained Offer positive reinforcement at the monthly Learning from Defects meeting
11 Debrief on Accountability 12 CUSP Toolkit Modules Learn About CUSP Assemble the Team Engage the Senior Executive Understand the Science of Safety Identify Defects Through Sensemaking
Implement Teamwork and Communication Apply CUSP 13 CUSP Toolkit Review Assemble the Team Address the importance of the CUSP team Develop a strategy to build a successful team Identify characteristics of successful teams and barriers to team performance as identified in TeamSTEPPS Define roles and responsibilities of CUSP team
15 Keys to Assembling the Team Understands that patient safety culture is local Composed of engaged frontline providers who take ownership of patient safety Includes staff members who have different levels of experience Tailored to include members based on clinical intervention Meets regularly (weekly or at least monthly) Has adequate resources
16 Engage the Senior Executive Identify characteristics to search for when recruiting the senior executive Describe the responsibilities of the senior executive Explain the role of the senior executive in addressing technical and adaptive work Explain how to engage the senior executive and develop shared accountability for the work
17 Keys to Engaging the Senior Executive Acknowledge the senior executives perspective (Whats in it for me?) Increase the visibility of your senior executive Ensure an executive is assigned to each CUSP team and participates regularly in meetings List identified safety issues in the Safety Issues Worksheet for Senior Executive Partnership or a tracking log
18 Understand the Science of Safety Describe the historical and contemporary context of the science of safety Explain how system design affects system results List the principles of safe design and identify how they apply to technical work and team work Indicate how teams make wise decisions when there is diverse and independent
input 19 Keys to Understanding the Science of Safety Develop a plan so all staff on your unit view the Understand the Science of Safety video Video screening should be mandatory for all unit staff Create a list of who has watched the video Describe the three principles of safe design: 1. Standardize 2. Create independent checks
3. Learn from defects 20 Identify Defects Through Sensemaking Introduce CUSP and Sensemaking tools to identify defects or errors Discuss the relationship between CUSP and Sensemaking Show how to apply CUSP and Sensemaking tools Discuss how to share findings 21
Keys to Identifying Defects Through Sensemaking CUSP and Sensemaking share several common themes CUSP and Sensemaking tools help teams identify defects and identify ways to deter them from occurring in the future The team should: - Share summaries of defects within the organization - Engage staff in conversations to enhance Learning from Defects 22 Implement Teamwork and
Communication2 Recognize the importance of effective communication Identify barriers to communication Describe the connections between communication and medical error Identify and apply effective communication strategies from CUSP and TeamSTEPPS 23 The Keys to Effective Communication3
Complete Clear Brief Timely 24 Summary A Just Culture is a system that holds itself accountable, holds staff members accountable, and has staff members who hold themselves
accountable. A Just Culture environment is ruled by both transparency and accountability and supports improved outcomes by emphasizing both robust systems and appropriate behaviors. Use the Just Culture principles along with the CUSP principles involved when assembling the team, engaging the senior executive, identifying defects through Sensemaking, and employing teamwork and communication. 25 References 1. Griffith, S. Just Culture. Plano, TX: Outcome Engineering; 2011
2. (Adapted from) Dayton E, Henricksen K. Communication failure: basic components, contributing factors and the call for structure. Joint Commission Journal. 2007;33(1):36. 3. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. TeamSTEPPS Fundamentals Course: Module 6 Communication. Available at: http://teamstepps.ahrq.gov/abouttoolsmaterials.htm Accessed August 18, 2011.
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