APNIC Members Training Course

APNIC Members Training Course

Welcome! APNIC Members Training Course Effective IP Address Management Asia Pacific Policies and Procedures 3 September 2002, Kitakyushu, Japan Introduction Presenters Miwa Fujii Training Officer [email protected] George Kuo Internet Resource Analyst [email protected] Arth Paulite Internet Resource Analyst [email protected] 2

Assumptions & Objectives Assumptions Are current APNIC member or a prospective member Have not submitted many requests Are not familiar or up to date with policies Are not familiar with procedures Objectives Provide overview of current policies To minimise pain of requesting resources To promote awareness 3 Schedule Session 1 (9-10.30) - General Introduction to APNIC (5)

- What is the role of APNIC? RIR Goals & Principles (12) - Short background APNIC Policies (25) - All current APNIC policies Policies & Procedures (33) - Additional guidelines Session 2 (11-12.30) - Operational Requesting resources (42) - Overview, forms, tips etc. IP Management (53) - Planning your allocation

APNIC Database (65) - Short intro to the whois DB Reverse DNS (86) - Basic concepts Summary (95) 4 Introduction to APNIC Asia Pacific Network Information Centre Intro What is APNIC? Regional Internet Registry for the Asia Pacific Regional authority for Internet Resource distribution IPv4 & IPv6 addresses, ASNs, reverse dns delegation

Industry self-regulatory body Participation by those who use Internet resources Consensus-based, open and transparent Non-profit, neutral and independent Open membership-based structure 6 Intro APNIC is not Not a network operator Does not provide networking services Works closely with APRICOT forum Not a standards body Does not develop technical standards Works within IETF in relevant areas (IPv6 etc)

Not a domain name registry or registrar Will refer queries to relevant parties 7 Intro Internet Registry Hierarchy 8 Intro APNIC Region 9 Intro

APNIC Services & Activities Resource services & registration IPv4, IPv6, ASNs, in-addr.arpa, whois Authoritative registration server: whois Policy development and implementation Membership reviews and approves policy Information dissemination APNIC meetings Training courses & seminars 10 Questions ? Want to know more about APNIC and the APNIC meetings? Come to the newcomers orientation this afternoon at 18.00.

11 RIR Goals & Principles Definitions, RIR Goals, Brief History & Policy Development Definitions Policy Background - Allocation and Assignment Allocation A block of address space held by an IR for subsequent allocation or assignment Not yet used to address any networks Assignment A block of address space used to address

an operational network May be provided to LIR customers, or used for an LIRs infrastructure (self-assignment) 13 Policy Background Allocation and Assignment APNIC Allocates IP addresses /8 APNIC Allocation APNIC Member Assigns

IP addresses Customer / End User /20 Member Allocation /24 /25 /26 Customer Assignments 14 Policy Background

Portable & Non-portable Portable Customer holds addresses independent from ISP Customer keeps addresses when changing ISP Bad for size of routing tables Bad for QOS: routes may be filtered, flap-dampened Non-portable Customer uses ISPs address space Customer must renumber if changing ISP Only way to effectively scale the Internet 15

Policy Background Classful and Classless Classful (Obsolete) Wasteful address architecture network boundaries are fixed at 8, 16 or 24 bits (class A, B, and C) Classless (Best Current Practice) Efficient architecture network boundaries may occur at any bit (e.g. /12, /16, /19, /24 etc) CIDR Classless Inter Domain Routing architecture Allows aggregation of routes within ISPs

infrastructure 16 Policy Background Classful Address Architecture Class A 128 networks x 16M hosts A (8 bits) Host address (24 bits) 0 (50% of all address space) 16K networks x 64K hosts B (16 bits) Host (16 bits)

Class B (25%) 10 2M networks x 256 hosts C (24 bits) Host (8 bits) Class C 110 (12,5%) Classful addressing obsolete: inefficient depletion of B space

too many routes from C space 17 Policy Background Classless Address Architecture /10 4M hosts 10 bits /19 8192 hosts 19 bits /20

4096 hosts 20 bits /24 /26 Host address (22 bits) Host (13 bits) Host (12 bits) 4096 hosts 24 bits Host (8 bits) 64 hosts 26 bits Host (6 bits)

Network boundaries may occur at any bit 18 Policy Background CIDR Aggregation BGP announcements Provider Aggregation Customer ISP Customer Provider Aggregation Customer 19 APNIC Policies Policy Background - Objectives Conservation Ensuring efficient use and conservation of resources Aggregation

Limiting growth of routable prefixes Registration Registering the Internet resources in a public db Uniqueness Global visibility Fairness and consistency Equal consideration irrespective of external factors 20 Why do we need Policies ? Policy Background - Global IPv4 Delegations

ARIN 6% APNIC 4% RIPE NCC 4% Unallocated 30% "Special purpose" 14% Other Orgs 42% 21 Why do we need Policies?

Policy Background - Growth of Global Routing Table Projected routing table growth without CIDR But they cannot be relied on forever Moores Law and CIDR made it work for a while Deployment Period of CIDR http://bgp.potaroo.net/as1221/bgp-active.html (as of 19 July 2002) 22 Policy

Background Routing Table Prefix Distribution Jul-02 <16 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 >24 Jun-02 May-02

Apr-02 Mar-02 Feb-02 Jan-02 Dec-01 Nov-01 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 23 Policy Background

APNIC Policy Development Based on global and regional policies Global: RFC2050 Regional: Policies for Address Space Management in the Asia Pacific Region http://www.apnic.net/docs/add-manage-policy.html Policy development APNIC and APNIC members Other RIRs and wider community Policy implementation APNIC and APNIC members 24 APNIC IPv4 Address Policies Allocation & Assignment Policies

Policies APNIC Policy Environment IP addresses not freehold property Internet resources are public resources Ownership is contrary to management goals Need to avoid the mistakes of the past Assignments & allocations on lease basis Confidentiality & security APNIC to observe and protect trust relationship Non-disclosure agreement signed by staff 26

Policies APNIC Allocation Policies Allocations as Non portable address space Provider responsible for aggregation Customer assignments must be non-portable Allocations based on demonstrated need Detailed documentation required All address space held to be declared Address space to be obtained from one source routing considerations may apply Stockpiling not permitted 27 Policies

Initial IPv4 Allocation Criteria Have used a /22 from upstream provider Demonstrated efficient previous address usage OR Show immediate need for /22 Can include customer projections & infrastructure equipment Provide detailed plan for use of /21 within a year Renumber to new space within 1 year Meet all policy requirements Applicants may be required to show purchase receipts 28 Policies Address Assignment Policies Assignments based on requirements Demonstrated through detailed documentation

Justification through description of usage, and number of hosts initially, in 6 months, and one year Assignment should maximise utilisation (minimise wastage) Classless assignments, showing use of VLSM Size of allocation Sufficient for up to 12 months requirement 29 Policies Small Multihoming Assignment Policy Applicants currently multihomed OR Demonstrate a plan to multihome within 1

month Agree to renumber out of previously assigned space Demonstrate need to use 25% of requested space immediately and 50% within 1 year Meet all policy requirements or have the assignment revoked 30 Policies IPv4 Assignment policy for IXPs /24 assignment for IX points Transit LAN Must agree not to announce the space to the global routing table IXP must be able to demonstrate open peering policy Have 3 or more peers APNIC has a reserved block of space from which

to make IXP assignments 31 Questions ? APNIC Policies & Procedures Policies, Procedures and Best Current Practices P&P & BCP Virtual web hosting Name based hosting Strongly recommended Use infrastructure field to describe web servers IP based hosting

Permitted on technical grounds for SSL, virtual ftp.. Use infrastructure field to describe web servers Special verification for IP based If more than /22 used for this purpose Requestor must send list of URLs of virtual domain and corresponding IP address 34 P&P & BCP Cable, DSL services 1:1 contention ratio Can be either statically or dynamically assigned Means 1 IP address per customer

Greater than 1:1 contention ratio Preferred because conserves address space Choice of addressing is optional for members dynamic addressing is encouraged Verification for DSL Services Equipment details Ex: BRAS, Number of ports Purchase requests 35 P&P & BCP New Cable Service Bootstrapping criteria for new cable service

Applies to startup providers commencing new cable Allocation size based on assumption that requestor will assign a /24 to each CMTS in their network Complete additional info with make, model & quantity Purchase receipts for equipments may be asked Assignments greater than /30 need to be Requested through second opinion process Registered separately in the database 36 P&P & BCP Cable / DSL Cable, DSL services Special verification for 1:1 (permanently on-line)

For anything over a /22 in total, verification through customer list for random head-ends or other alternative For residential networks Do not need to register on-site tech-c, however ISPs tech-c can be used 37 P&P & BCP Renumbering One-for-one exchange to assist renumbering needs confirmation from upstream ISP to confirm renumbering will take place No Questions Asked return prefix policy

swap 3 or more discontiguous prefixes (ISP or customers) for single prefix, no charge ftp://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/no-questions-policy Form for returning addresses ftp://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/address-return-request 38 P&P & BCP Subsequent Allocations 80% overall utilisation Demonstrated conservative assignments Correct database registrations for customers Fix inconsistencies before next allocation Amount depends on usage rate

How much, how fast, allocate for up to one year Contiguous allocation not guaranteed But every effort made 39 P&P & BCP Summary All address space held should be documented Check other RIR, NIR databases for historical allocations No reservations policy Reservations may never be claimed Fragments address space Customers may need more or less address

space than is actually reserved Aggregation LIR announces allocation as a single aggregate 40 Questions ? Requesting Internet Resources Requesting IP addresses Req IP - Overview Put together an Addressing Plan

Request an Allocation ISP Request (APNIC-084) Second opinion request For customer assignments (APNIC-073) Register all customer assignments in db whois.apnic.net

80% utilisation in Allocation Request new Allocation APNIC-084 43 Req IP Addressing Plan Identify components of network Customer services ISP internal infrastructure Identify phases of deployment

Starting off, 6 months, 12 months Identify equipment and topology changes Need for redundancy Need for increased scale 44 Addressing Plan Example relative prefix subnet Connect subnet Deployment to phases Internet size

Description mask network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: network-plan: YES PART PART YES

YES YES YES YES YES 1024 256 256 64 64 16 16 16 4 128/512/1020 60 leased line customers 16/60/240

8 PRI dial up modems.. 0/60/240 8 PRI dial up modems.. 10/16/35 LAN -mail,DNS, web internal 15/25/40 LAN -NOC & Ops mgmt 5/11/11 LAN -web hosting (Name-based) 0/8/8 LAN -secondary servers 4/6/12 loopback router interfaces 2/2/2 router WAN ports (x 8 lines ) detailed, efficient and accurate 45

Req IP Address Request Forms Allocation Request ISP Address Request Form http://www.apnic.net/services/ipv4/ Assignment Request (Second opinion) Second opinion Request Form http://cgi.apnic.net/apnic-bin/second-opinionrequest.pl 46 Req IP Hostmaster Administrivia mailbox Is filtered to accept requests from members only Requires member account name

Subject: IP Address Request [CONNECT-AU] Ticketing system Every request is assigned a ticket Ticket # is a confirmation that your request has been well received New staff at LIR Require an introduction to hostmasters To ensure confidentiality 47 Req IP Requesting IP addresses Create person objects and a company maintainer object before you apply. Read the Tips document at: http://www.apnic.net/info/faq/isp-request-tips.html

Use correct account name for your request Always use same ticket # for same request Please keep # in subject line of email eg. [APNIC #14122] [CHINANET-CN] 48 Req IP Requesting IP addresses Provide a detailed description of your network topology More information provided = less iteration Make sure the request has correct format & syntax http://www.apnic.net/services/help/isp_txt/ http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/second-opinion-request

Provide list of all current addresses held Additional comments field Topology map, deployment plan etc Any additional info that supports the request Plan to adopt best current practice 49 Requesting New Allocation Req IP - Checklist Utilisation in allocation is 80% All customer assignments are registered in the whois database With accurate and up-to-data information

Sufficient documentation to support address requirement Membership fee is paid 50 Req IP Member Services Helpdesk One point of contact for all member enquiries Extended operating hours 9:00 am to 7:00 pm (Australian EST, UTC + 10 hrs) More personalised service Range of languages Cantonese, Filipino, Mandarin, Thai, Vietnamese etc. Faster response and resolution of queries IP resource applications, status of requests, obtaining help

in completing application forms, membership enquiries, billing issues & database enquiries etc. 51 Questions ? IP Address Management IP Mgmt Revision of routing protocols Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS Used to find optimum route to a host in ISP network Convergence becomes important with scaling Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Can be interior (iBGP) and exterior (eBGP)

Used to carry traffic across your network and to/from the Internet Can use BGP attributes for routing policy 54 IP Mgmt Principles of Addressing Separate customer & infrastructure address pools Manageability Different personnel manage infrastructure and assignments to customers Scalability Easier renumbering - customers are difficult, infrastructure is relatively easy 55

IP Mgmt Principles of Addressing Further separate infrastructure Dynamic infrastructure for IGP Network infrastructure addresses used by a routing protocol - alternate paths to host exist Eg. p2p addresses of backbone connections Eg. router loopback addresses Static infrastructure Static routing of infrastructure (no alternative path exists) Carry in iBGP 56 IP Mgmt

Principles of Addressing Further separate infrastructure Static infrastructure examples RAS server address pools, CMTS Virtual web and content hosting LANs Anything where there is no dynamic route calculation Customer networks Carry in iBGP , do not put in IGP No need to aggregate address space carried in iBGP Can carry in excess of 100K prefixes 57 IP Mgmt Hierarchy of Routing Protocols Other ISPs

BGP4 (eBGP) ISP Internal Network BGP4 (iBGP) & OSPF/ISIS eBGP FDDI Local NAP Static/eBGP Customers 58 IP Mgmt

Management - Simple Network First allocation from APNIC Customers 20% Infrastructure p 2 p loops Infrastructure is known, customers are not 20% free is trigger for next request

Grow usage of blocks from edges Assign customers sequentially 59 IP Mgmt Management - Simple Network If second allocation is contiguous 1st allocation Customers Infrastructure 2nd allocation Infrastructure 20% Customers

Reverse order of division of first block Maximise contiguous space for infrastructure Easier for debugging Customer networks can be discontiguous 60 IP Mgmt Management - Many POPs WAN link to single transit ISP POP1 POP2 Server

POP3 61 IP Mgmt Management - Many POPs POP sizes Choose address pool for each POP according to need Customer Infrastructure Loopback addresses Keep together in one block Assists in fault-resolution POP 1 POP2

Customer addresses Assign sequentially loopbacks 62 IP Mgmt Management - Many POPs /20 allocation not enough for all POPs? Deploy addresses on infrastructure first Common mistake Reserving customer addresses on a per POP basis Do not constrain network plans due to lack of address space

Re-apply once address space has been used 63 Questions ? The APNIC Database Introduction and Usage DB What is the APNIC Database? Public network management database Operated by IRs Tracks network resources IP addresses, ASNs, Reverse Domains, Routing policies

Records administrative information Contact information (persons/roles) Authorisation 66 DB Object Types OBJECT person role inetnum inet6num aut-num as-macro domain route mntner

PURPOSE contact persons contact groups/roles IPv4 addresses IPv6 addresses Autonomous System number group of autonomous systems reverse domains prefixes being announced (maintainer) database authorisation 67 DB Object Templates To obtain template structure, use : whois -t

Recognised by the RIPE whois client/server % whois -h whois.apnic.net -t person person: address: country: phone: fax-no: e-mail: nic-hdl: remarks: notify: mnt-by: changed: source: [mandatory] [mandatory] [optional] [mandatory]

[optional] [optional] [mandatory] [optional] [optional] [optional] [mandatory] [mandatory] [single] [multiple] [single] [multiple] [multiple] [multiple] [single] [multiple] [multiple] [multiple]

[multiple] [single] [primary/look-up key] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [look-up key] [primary/look-up key] [ ] [inverse key] [inverse key] [ ] [ ] 68 DB

Person object - example Person objects contain contact information Values Attributes person: address: address: address: country: phone: fax-no: e-mail: nic-hdl: mnt-by: changed: source:

Ky Xander ExampleNet Service Provider 2 Pandora St Boxville Wallis and Futuna Islands WF +680-368-0844 +680-367-1797 [email protected] KX17-AP MAINT-WF-EXAMPLENET [email protected] 20020731 APNIC 69 DB Inetnum object - example

Inetnum objects contain IP address allocations / assignments Attributes inetnum: netname: descr: descr: country: admin-c: tech-c: mnt-by: mnt-lower: changed: source: Values -

CCNEP-NP-AP Communication & Communicate Nepal Ltd VSAT Service Provider, Kathmandu NP AS75-AP AS75-AP APNIC-HM MAINT-NP-ARUN [email protected] 20010205 APNIC 70 DB Object Types person:

inetnum: mntner: MAINT-WF-EX Data protection admin-c: KX17-AP tech-c: ZU-AP mnt-by: MAINT-WF-EX

IPv4 addresses nic-hdl: KX17-AP Contact info person: nic-hdl: ZU3-AP Contact info 71 DB Why Use the Database? Register use of Internet Resources

IP assignments, reverse DNS, etc Ascertain custodianship of a resource Fulfill responsibilities as resource holder Obtain details of technical contacts for a network Investigate security incidents Track source of network abuse or spam email 72 DB LIR Registration Responsibilities 1. Create person objects for contacts To provide contact info in other objects

2. Create mntner object To provide protection of objects 3. Create inetnum objects for all customer address assignments (Allocation object created by APNIC) http://www.apnic.net/services/whois_guide.html 73 Using the DB step by step 3 Inetnum: Allocation 1

(Created by APNIC) person: 4 5 6 Inetnum: Inetnum: Inetnum: ... KX17-AP

... KX17-AP ... KX17-AP ... mnt-by: ... ... mnt-by: ... ... mnt-by: ...

nic-hdl: KX17-AP Contact info 2 mntner: Customer Assignments Data Protection (Created by LIR) 74 DB Basic Database Queries 1. Unix

whois h whois.apnic.net 2. Web interface http://www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/whois2.pl Look-up keys usually the object name Check the object template for look-up keys

whois t 75 DB Database Query - UNIX % whois [email protected] % whois zu3-ap % whois zane ulrich person: address: address: address: country: phone: fax-no: e-mail: nic-hdl:

mnt-by: changed: source: Zane Ulrich ExampleNet Service Provider 2 Pandora St Boxville Wallis and Futuna Islands WF +680-368-0844 +680-367-1797 [email protected] ZU3-AP MAINT-WF-EXAMPLENET [email protected] 20020731 APNIC 76 DB

Database Query - Inetnum % whois - % whois % whois SINGNET-SG inetnum: - netname: SINGNET-SG descr: Singapore Telecommunications Ltd descr: 31, Exeter Road, #02-00, Podium Block descr: Comcentre, 0923 country: SG admin-c: CWL3-AP

tech-c: CWL3-AP mnt-by: APNIC-HM changed: [email protected] 19990803 source: APNIC Notes Incomplete addresses padded with .0 Address without prefix interpreted as /32 77 DB Advanced Database Queries Flags used for inetnum queries None find exact match - L find all less specific matches

- m find first level more specific matches 78 DB Database Query - inetnum whois -L /20 inetnum: Less specific (= bigger block) whois /20

inetnum: whois m /20 inetnum: More specific (= smaller blocks) inetnum: inetnum: 79

DB 2 Database Update Process Create a new object Change an object Delete an object Method 1: Web interface http://www.apnic.net/services/whois_guide.html Method 2: Directly by e-mail 80 DB 2 Database Update Process

Web interface 1. Fill out form on web 2. Template is created and sent to you by e-mail 3. Forward to E-mail Common error: to reply to the e-mail 1. Get template / existing object 2. Send completed template to 81

DB 2 Updating an existing object 1. 2. 3. 4. Update fields to be changed Add your maintainer password Update the changed attribute Email updated object to:

Note Primary keys cannot be modified 82 DB 2 Database Update Process Deleting an object Copy object as-is in database into email Add your maintainer password Leave the changed attribute Referenced objects cannot be deleted (02/99)

inetnum: netname: ... mnt-by: changed: source: password: delete: - SONY-HK MAINT-CNS-AP [email protected] 19990617 APNIC x34zky no longer required [email protected] 83

DB 2 Database Mailboxes Automatic request processing Parse Database service support Helpdesk Automatic robot for all db updates Email template for create/update/delete

E-mails answered by APNIC staff APNIC response time approx 2 days 84 Questions ? Rev. DNS Reverse DNS Delegation Registry Procedures Rev. DNS

What is Reverse DNS? Forward DNS maps names to numbers svc00.apnic.net -> Reverse DNS maps numbers to names -> svc00.apnic.net 87 Rev. DNS Hierarchy of IP addresses Uses in-addr.arpa domain INverse ADDRess IP addresses written Less specific to More specific

Domain names written More specific to Less specific delhi.vsnl.net.in Reversed in in-addr.arpa hierarchy 14.56.210.in-addr.arpa 88 Rev. DNS In-addr.arpa Mapping numbers to names - reverse DNS Root DNS net edu

com in in-addr apnic whois whois arpa 202 202 203 210

211.. 64 64 22 22 22 .64.202 .in-addr .arpa 89 Rev. DNS Reverse DNS - why bother? Service denial That only allow access when fully reverse delegated eg. anonymous ftp

Diagnostics Assisting in trace routes etc Registration Responsibility as a member 90 Rev. DNS Member Responsibilities Ensure that addresses are reversemapped Be familiar with APNIC procedures Maintain nameservers for allocations Minimise pollution of DNS syntax or configuration errors

91 Rev. DNS Delegation Procedures Complete form at: http://www.apnic.net/db/domain.html Online form verifies name servers Form gives errors, warnings in zone configuration Uses database domain object can be updated through webform or via email. Protection by maintainer object Zone file update 2-hourly 92 References

Reverse DNS Guide http://www.apnic.net/services/dns_guide.html Reverse DNS Form http://www.apnic.net/db/domain.html What are Reverse Delegations? http://www.apnic.net/db/revdel.html Classless Reverse DNS http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2317.txt 93 Questions ? Summary What we have covered today

Summary - Responsibilities As an APNIC member and custodian of address space Be aware of your responsibilities Register customer assignments in APNIC database Keep this data up-to-date & accurate Educate your customers Document your network in detail Keep local records Register reverse DNS delegations 96 Summary Do the right thing Think about routing table size & scalability of Internet

Encourage renumbering Announce aggregate prefixes Think global not local 97 Thank you !! Your feedback is appreciated Supplementary Reading Introduction Regional Registry web sites APNIC http://www.apnic.net ARIN http://www.arin.net RIPE NCC

http://www.ripe.net APNIC past meetings http://www.apnic.net/meetings 100 Introduction Details of members http://www.apnic.net/members.html Membership Membership procedure http://www.apnic.net/membersteps.html Membership application form http://www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/membershipapplication.pl Membership fees http://www.apnic.net/docs/corpdocs/FeeSchedule.htm Mailing lists

http://www.apnic.net/net_comm/lists/ 101 The RIR System Development of the Regional Internet Registry System Internet Protocol Journal Short history of the Internet http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/759/ ipj_4-4/ipj_4-4_regional.html 102 APNIC Policies Classless techniques CIDR http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1517-19.txt Network Addressing when using CIDR ftp://ftp.uninett.no/

pub/misc/eidnes-cidr.ps.Z Variable Length Subnet Table http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1878.txt Private Address Space Address Allocation for Private Internets http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1918.txt Counter argument: Unique addresses are good http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1817.txt 103 Policies & Policy Environment Policy Documentation Policies for address space management in the Asia Pacific region http://www.apnic.net/docs/policy/add-managepolicy.html RFC2050: Internet Registry IP allocation

Guidelines http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc2000/rfc2050.txt 104 Address Request Procedures Addressing Guidelines Designing Addressing Architectures for Routing & Switching Howard C. Berkowitz Address Request Forms ISP Address Request Form http://www.apnic.net/services/ipv4/ Second-opinion Request Form http://cgi.apnic.net/apnic-bin/second-opinionrequest.pl No Questions Asked http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/no-questionspolicy 105 APNIC Database

APNIC Database Documentation http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/database-updateinfo http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/docs/maintainer-request http://www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/maintainer.pl http://www.apnic.net/services/whois_guide.html RIPE Database Documentation Database whois Client http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/dbase/tools/ripe-dbaseclient.tar.gz http://www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/whois2.pl 106 In-addr.arpa Request Forms http://www.apnic.net/db/revdel.html http://www.apnic.net/db/domain.html Classless Delegations http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc2000/rfc2317.txt

Common DNS data file configuration errors http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1537.txt Domain name structure and delegation http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1591.txt Domain administrators operations guide http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1033.txt 107 In-addr.arpa Taking care of your domain ftp://ftp.ripe.net/ripe/docs/ripe-114.txt Tools for DNS debugging http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc2000/rfc2317.txt Common Errors

NS not reachable, NS not set up Domain not fully qualified (dot missing) Entries in zone which do not belong there More/less Nses listed than applied for Nses cache different information Source of a zone (as listed inSOA) not in NS RR 108 In-addr.arpa Common Errors contd CNAME Problem Old versions of BIND cannot do recursive

lookups NS name contains unusual characters Underscore not permitted In addition for /16 delegations: APNIC should be listed as secondary 109 Other Supplementary Reading Operational Content Books ISP Survival Guide - Geoff Huston BGP Table http://www.telstra.net/ops/bgptable.html http://www.merit.edu/ipma/reports http://www.merit.edu/ipma/routing_table/maeeast/prefixlen.990212.html http://www.employees.org/~tbates/

cidr.hist.plot.html Routing Instability http://zounds.merit.net/cgi-bin/do.pl 110 Other Supplementary Reading Routing & Mulithoming Internet Routing Architectures - Bassam Halabi BGP Communities Attribute http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1997.txt http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1998.txt Multihoming Using a Dedicated AS for Sites homed to a Single Provider http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc2000/rfc2270.txt 111

Other Supplementary Reading Filtering Egress Filtering http://www.cisco.com/public/cons/isp Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc2000/rfc2267.txt Dampening case studies at http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/459/16.html Traceroute Server http://nitrous.digex.net 112 Other Supplementary Reading

Renumbering Network Renumbering Overview: Why Would I Want It and What Is It Anyway? http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc2000/rfc2071.txt Procedures for Enterprise Renumbering http://www.isi.edu/div7/pier/papers.html NAT The IP Network Address Translator http://ftp.apnic.net/ietf/rfc/rfc1000/rfc1631.txt 113 APNIC Mailing Lists apnic-talk Open discussion relevant to APNIC community and members e.g. policies, procedures etc

apnic-announce Announcements of interest to the AP community ipv6-registry IPv6 allocation and assignment policies http://www.apnic.net/net_comm/lists/ subscribe via archives at http://ftp.apnic.net/apnic/mailing-lists 114

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