Absolute Monarchs in Europe

Absolute Monarchs in Europe

*Absolute power List the Characteristics of a good leader. What are some potential benefits of having a ruler in power with complete control? What are some potential downfalls? Do you have any absolute monarchs in your life? (Explain) Absolute Monarchs in Europe

1500-1800 Setting the Stage. The end of the Middle Ages saw the development of more powerful European monarchies. As feudalism declined, stronger national kingdoms emerged under the control of absolute rulers.

Absolute Monarchs The 1500-1800s are going to marked by the rule of absolute monarchs. Kings or Queens that believed that all the power within their states boundaries rested in their hands. They had complete power. Their goal was to control every aspect of society. Believed in the divine rightthe idea that God

created the monarchy and gave the monarch supreme power. Monarchies spread throughout Europe Absolute monarchs are going to become the norm in Europe. Spanish EmpirePhillip II FranceLouis XIV RussiaPeter the Great

EnglandTudor Monarchy The Spanish Empire The 1500s brings many new changes to European Life. 1. RENAISSANCE- Led to new ideas. 2. EXPLORATION- Europes conquest of the Americas will lead to a race for land. 3. REFORMATION- Religious conflicts

dominated European politics as Catholic rulers sought to limit Protestantism. The Spanish Empire Spain will emerge in the 1500s as Europes greatest power. King Phillip II Devout Catholic like his

father before him. During 42 year reign he will strengthen his monarchy, his nation, and the Catholic Church Frances Ultimate Monarch LOUIS XIV The Sun King

The kingdom of France was the strongest at the time of Louis XIV. Absolute Monarchs The character and policies of Louis XIV, The Grand Monarch, would shape the age of absolute monarchs.

He stated I am the state Used his power and wealth to pursue glory for himself and for France. Created the Palace of Versailles. Quick Brainstorm If you could build your dream home what would it be

like? Palace of Versialles Palace of Versailles Palace of Versailles Versailles

At Versailles, Louis XIV held elaborate parties to show the wealth of the crown. Louis made the court of Versailles the center of French culture. Louis paid the top playwrights of the day, Moliere and Racine, to perform their works for the French people. Louis XIV

Louis XIV also purchased many great works of art. (Louvre Museum in Paris) Louis XIV needed more money to help finance his throne. Help came from Jean Baptiste Colbert. Frances Economic Growth Colbert served as Louis XIV finance

minister. Came up with ideas: Mercantilism Imports/ Exports

Balance of Trade Colonies Louis XIV Louis XIV continued to try to expand his empire through conquests. Enemies continued to unite to defend themselves. Louis XIV failed to make any significant gains

for France. Louis XIV died in 1715 What about Russia???? Russia: Peter the Great Peter Romanov became known as Peter the Great

Became Czar Peter I of Russia in 1682, the same year Louis XIV moved into Versailles. Knew very little about Western Europe Russia: Peter the Great Because of their geographic location and the

long rule by the Mongol leaders, Russia was cut off culturally from Western Europe. Peter the Great was determined to end Russias isolation from the rest of the world. Peter traveled through Europe in search of new ideas and culture. Russia: Peter the Great Admired everything

he saw in Europe. Status of Women The Russian Calendar

Agriculture Factories and Mines Newspaper (Edited) Russia: Peter the Great Often Peter the Great fired old leaders, hired new leaders from the middle/low class and grant them lands. These people were very loyal to Peter.

Created an Army of over 200,000 troops. Hired European Generals to train military. St. Petersburg Peter the Great created a great city a great window for Russia to look out at Europe Named it St. Petersburg

after himself. St. Petersburg became the new capital. English Monarchies During this time period England is also going to be ruled by a string of monarchs. However, Englands monarchy will differ from the other monarchs of Europe in that it would be

limited by the Parliament. Parliamenta body of representatives that makes laws for a nation. Under Elizabeth England will flourish however she will die in 1603. Her cousin James Stuart of Scotland will take over the throne. James I and Parliament will quickly disagree

over the power of the King. James I wanted complete power of England ENGLAND King James I also had an English version of the bible printed which has become the best selling book of all time. The feud with Parliament continued to James's son, Charles when he took the throne.

ENGLAND Charles I would ask Parliament for money. They refused unless he signed the Petition of Right. (No taxes unless OKd by Parliament, No imprisonment without

reason.) He quickly dismissed Parliament and ruled as a monarch for the next 11 years. ENGLISH CIVIL WAR 1640 In need of money to finance a war with Scotland, Charles called on parliament again.

This time Parliament made peace with Scotland and made laws to limit the Kings power. Upset, King Charles led 400 troops to the House of Commons to arrest its leaders ENGLISH CIVIL WAR This marked the beginning of the English Civil War. This war would determine where power was

in England (King or Parliament) ENGLISH CIVIL WAR Roundheads- those Royalists/Cavaliersthat were loyal to those that supported Parliament. Puritan the King, included townspeople and

nobles and Catholics. merchants made up this class. Led by King Charles I Led by Oliver Cromwell ENGLISH CIVIL WAR Led by Oliver Cromwell, the Roundheads defeated

the Cavaliers and captured Charles. The outcome of the civil war grants power to the Parliament. In January 1649 King Charles I was tried for treason and executed. This marked the first time a monarch had been tried and condemned by his subjects. Parliament asked Prince Charles Stuart to be the new King (Charles I son)

ENGLISH CIVIL WAR Charles II did not push the Divine Right of Kings or Catholicism. Restored some rights of the people. Following Charles II death, his brother James took over. ENGLISH CIVIL WAR King James II took power.

Strong Catholic England again was split into two sides. 1. Tories (King) 2. Whigs (Parliament) ENGLISH CIVIL WAR After much negotiating and maneuvering both the Whigs and Tories agreed that James II

must go. Mary (daughter of James first wife) and her husband William of Orange took over for James II. This bloodless revolution is known as the Glorious Revolution. ENGLISH CIVIL WAR William and Mary ruled

as joints sovereigns. Parliament presented the new monarchs with a Bill of Rights that all future monarchs must use. Bill of Rights The implementation of the Bill of rights changed

the monarchy into a constitutional monarchy where laws limited the rulers power. Under the Bill of Rights the ruler could NOT: Suspend Parliament laws Levy taxes without permission of Parliament Interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament Impose penalties on people who start petitions against the king or queen.

ENGLISH CIVIL WAR New Ideas Emerged from the Glorious Revolution. John Locke published Two Treatises on Government. People have rights and government is created to protect those rights.

Life, Liberty and Property

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