6: Motivation - From Concepts to Applications

6: Motivation - From Concepts to Applications

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 10/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Chapter 6 Motivation: From Concepts to Application Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-1 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.

Describe the way in which employees can be motivated by changing their work environment. 2. Compare and contrast the three main ways jobs can be redesigned. 3. Give examples of employee involvement measures and how they can motivate employees. 4. Describe the four major strategic rewards decisions.

5. Demonstrate how the different types of variablepay programs can increase employee motivation. 6. Describe how the application of motivation theories varies across cultures. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-2 Motivating by Changing the Work Environment: JCM The Job Characteristics Model - jobs are described in terms of five core

dimensions: Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-3 The Job Characteristics Model Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-4 JCM: Designing

Motivational Jobs JCM-designed jobs give internal rewards Individuals growth needs are moderating factors Motivating jobs must be: Autonomous Provide feedback, and Have at least one of the three meaningfulness factors Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-5 How Can Jobs be Redesigned? Job Rotation The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another

Job Enlargement Increasing the number and variety of tasks Job Enrichment Increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-6 Guidelines for Enriching a Job Using JCM Enrichment reduces turnover and absenteeism while increasing satisfaction. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6-7 Alternate Work Arrangements Flextime Some discretion over when worker starts and leaves Job Sharing Two or more individuals split a traditional job Telecommuting Work remotely at least two days per week Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6-8 Employee Involvement A participative process that uses the input of employees to increase their commitment to the organizations success Two types: Participative Management Representative Participation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-9 Participative Management Subordinates share a significant degree

of decision-making power with superiors Required conditions: Issues must be relevant Employees must be competent and knowledgeable All parties must act in good faith Only a modest influence on productivity, motivation, and job satisfaction Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-10 Representative Participation Workers are represented by a small group of employees who participate in decisions affecting personnel

Works Councils Board membership Desires to redistribute power within an organization Does not appear to be very motivational Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-11 Rewarding Employees Major strategic rewards decisions: 1. What to pay employees 2. How to pay individual employees

3. What benefits to offer 4. How to construct employee recognition programs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-12 1. What to Pay Need to establish a pay structure Balance between: Internal equity the worth of the job to the organization External equity the external competitiveness of an organizations pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry A strategic decision with trade-offs

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-13 2. How to Pay: Variable-Pay Programs Bases a portion of the pay on a given measure of performance Piece-Rate Pay workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed Merit-Based Pay pay is based on individual performance appraisal ratings Bonuses rewards employees for recent performance Skill-Based Pay pay is based on skills acquired instead of job title or rank doesnt address the level of performance Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6-14 More Variable Pay Programs Profit-Sharing Plans organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on an established formula designed around profitability Gainsharing compensation based on sharing of gains from improved productivity Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices While itit appears appears that that pay pay does

does increase increase While productivity, itit seems seems that that not not everyone everyone responds responds productivity, positively to to variable-pay variable-pay plans. plans. positively Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15

3. What Benefit to Offer: Flexible Benefits Each employee creates a benefit package tailored to their own needs and situation Modular plans predesigned packages to meet the needs of a specific group Core-plus plans core of essential benefits and menu of options to choose from Flexible spending plans full choice from menu of options Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-16

4. How to Recognize Them: Employee Recognition Programs In addition to pay there are intrinsic rewards Can be as simple as a spontaneous comment Can be formalized in a program Recognition is the most powerful workplace motivator and the least expensive! Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-17

Global Implications Do motivational approaches vary by culture? Job Characteristics/Enrichment: may not be the same in collectivist cultures Telecommuting, variable pay, flexible benefits: while all of these seem to be on the increase, not enough research has been done to make any conclusions Employee Involvement: important to modify

practices to reflect national culture Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-18 Implications for Managers Recognize and allow for individual differences Use specific goals and feedback Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them Link rewards to performance Check the reward system for equity Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-19

Keep in Mind Most people respond to the intrinsic job characteristics of the JCM It is not clear that employee involvement programs work use caution! Variable-pay plans can enhance motivation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20 Summary 1. Described the way in which employees could be motivated by changing their work environment.

2. Compared and contrasted the three main ways jobs could be redesigned. 3. Gave examples of employee involvement measures and how they could motivate employees. 4. Described the four major strategic rewards decisions. 5. Demonstrated how the different types of variablepay programs could increase employee motivation.

6. Described how the application of motivation theories varied across cultures. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-22

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Structured TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and ...

    Structured TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and ...

    The schedule tells you where to go The work system tells you what to do Structured TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children Blanche McKenna Autism Specialist Physical Structure Physical structure refers to the actual layout...
  • W11M1: The Olmecs & the Maya - Mr. Wright's Class

    W11M1: The Olmecs & the Maya - Mr. Wright's Class

    The Olmecs. The Olmec civilization is considered by historians to be "pristine:" this means that it developed on its own, without the benefit of immigration or cultural exchange with some other established society. Generally, only six pristine cultures are thought...
  • Romeo and Juliet Summary Romeo and Juliet is

    Romeo and Juliet Summary Romeo and Juliet is

    Writing Style. Parts of . Romeo and Juliet. are written as a sonnet, a poem of 14 lines written and rhymed in iambic pentameter. Each sonnet ends with a couplet.
  • Main Title - University Library

    Main Title - University Library

    Library Discovery at a Crossroads . Academic libraries should "step back to reconfirm (or reconsider) their vision for discovery, to ensure that their visions connect with information-seeking practices and preferences, and to determine whether they have a viable strategy in...
  • 4.6 Graphs of Other Trigonometric Functions csc, sec,

    4.6 Graphs of Other Trigonometric Functions csc, sec,

    4.6 Graphs of Other Trigonometric Functions csc, sec, tan, & cot Graphing csc and sec is done by graphing its reciprocal function first. Graph y = 3 + 2 csc v.s. = A = P = h.s. = 3 2...
  • LORD TRANSFORM ME - South Leeward Mission

    LORD TRANSFORM ME - South Leeward Mission

    Lord Transform Me. Is an intentional effort of all SDA Church employees and laity in Inter-American Division to live Christ-like lives, through the empowerment of the Holy Spirit. ... but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that...
  • Electronic Health Record and Clinical Research

    Electronic Health Record and Clinical Research

    Electronic Health Record Initiatives Mitra Rocca Outline of the Presentation Health Record Terms and Definitions Current Status of Health Information Networks and Electronic Health Record (EHR) Systems US EU Role of EHR/Health Information Technology (HIT) in Clinical Research Ongoing EHR...
  • COL: data acquisition, storage and preservation Roger Brugge

    COL: data acquisition, storage and preservation Roger Brugge

    COL: data acquisition, storage and preservation Roger Brugge [email protected] www.met.reading.ac.uk/~brugge Climatological Observers Link Department of Meteorology