12/15/14

12/15/14

4/16/15 WARM UP Pull out your answers to the practice AIMs test, If you didnt finish, quickly finish. Those done, help pass back papers. Pull out labs for me to grade. ANNOUNCEMENTS: AIMS Science Test: 4/22 AIMS Practice answer key

Review Chemistry Pull out old chemistry study guides/semester study guides & notes Chemistry Review Concepts

Matter Measuring Changes States Solutions

pH 2.1 Describing Matter 1. Classify matter in terms of elements, compounds and mixtures Element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance Elements

2.1 Describing Matter 1. Classify matter in terms of elements, compounds and mixtures 6. What are elements, and how do they relate to compounds? Element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance Compound = a pure substance made of 2+ elements

chemically combined (cant physically separate) Mixtures = 2+ substances are combined physically Element Check Are the following elements? Aluminum (Al) Copper (Cu) Oxygen (O2)

Water (H2O) REVIEW ELEMENT vs COMPOUNDS

Nickel (Ni) Silver (Ag) Glass (SiO) Neon (Ne) Hydrogen (H2) 2.1 Describing Matter 1. Classify matter in terms of elements, compounds and mixtures

7. What are the properties of a mixture? Element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance Compound = a pure substance made of 2+ elements chemically combined (cant physically separate) Mixtures = 2+ substances are combined physically 2.1 Describing Matter

2. Classify matter as being homogeneous or heterogeneous 8. What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Homogeneous = evenly mixed, cant see parts Ex: salt water Heterogeneous = unevenly mixed, can pick out pieces Ex: Chex Mix

E, C or Mixture (He or Ho) 9. What is the difference between an element, compound and mixture? Give examples: Copper (Cu) Water (H2O) Mixed Salad Salt (NaCl) Carbon (C ) Air

Kool aid Sugar E, C or Mixture (He or Ho)

Copper (Cu) - ELEMENT Water (H2O) - COMPOUND Mixed Salad - HETEROGENEOUS Salt (NaCl) - COMPOUND Carbon (C ) - ELEMENT

Air - HOMOGENEOUS Kool aid - HOMOGENEOUS Sugar - COMPOUND 2.1 Describing Matter 4. Determine physical and chemical properties of matter 5. What kinds of properties are used to describe matter PHYSICAL PROPERTY = Can change its appearance

physically CHEMICAL PROPERTY = Can change what it is made up of (can change the atoms to make a new thing); can react Write the property and then write PP or CP Tear-able paper Physical property Flammable Chemical property

Breakable Physical property Boiling point Physical property Ability to dissolve Physical property Ability to rust Chemical property Put the following properties under the correct description: (24 properties)

Volume Flammable Can rust Density Malleability Flexible Floats Mass Magnetic

Boiling point

Freezing point Bouncy Can tarnish Corrosive Melting point

State of matter Color Reactive Soluble pH Evaporates Reacts w/ water

Conducts heat Conducts electricity Smell Viscosity Put the following properties under the correct description: (24 properties)

Volume Flammable Can rust Density Malleability Flexible Floats Mass

Magnetic Boiling point

Freezing point Bouncy Can tarnish Corrosive

Melting point State of matter Color Reactive Soluble pH Evaporates Reacts w/

water Conducts heat Conducts electricity Smell Viscosity 2.1 Describing Matter 10. How are chemical bonds formed?

Sharing or taking of valence electrons 2.2 Measuring Matter 1. Units for measurements 2. Scientific tools used to determine measurements Mass Volume Density Length

Temperature 2.2 Measuring Matter 1. Units for measurements Mass = grams, mg, kg (scale or triple beam balance) Volume = cm3 (LxWxH); mL (beaker, graduated cylinder); cm3 water displacement Density = g/mL or g/cm3 Length = meters, km, cm (ruler)

Temperature = C (thermometer) 2.2 Measuring Matter 3. Volume Cube Liquid Irregular shape 2.2 Measuring Matter

4. Density Density = amount of matter per space occupied D = M/V Density 1. Mass of an object is 400 g and the volume is 100 mL, what is the density? 2. Mass of the object is 400 g and the density is 10 g/mL, what is the volume?

3. Volume of the object is 10 cm3 and the density is 10 g/cm3, what is the mass? 2.3 Changes in Matter 1. & 2. What is a PC & CC? PHYSICAL CHANGE = an actual change to an object that does not change the chemical make up (arrangement of atoms) EX: state of matter change

size change shape change CHEMICAL CHANGE = a new substance has formed EX: OCPGT What are the 5 evidences of a CC?

OCPGT Osos Can Produce Grande Turds Odor Color Change

Precipitate Gas Produced Temperature Change 2.3 Changes in Matter

Cutting wood Breaking glass Burnt smell produced Boiling water The bag got hotter when mixed

Food coloring was added A solid formed when the acid was mixed 2.3 Changes in Matter

Cutting wood - PHYSICAL Breaking glass - PHYSICAL Burnt smell produced - CHEMICAL Boiling water - PHYSICAL The bag got hotter when mixed - CHEMICAL Food coloring was added - PHYSICAL

A solid formed when the acid was mixed - CHEMICAL 2.3 Changes in Matter 4. How are physical and chemical changes in matter related to changes in energy? States of matter & energy Heat/Thermal energy 2.3 Changes in Matter

5. What is the law of conservation of mass? Matter cannot be created or destroyed Total mass of the reactants = total mass of the products Law of Conservation of Mass Same # of atoms on reactant side as the product side 2H2 + O2 2(H2O)

H= ____ 4H=____ 4 O= ____ 2 O=____ 2 Practice

Mg + O2 MgO Mg = ____ O = _____ Mg= ____ O = _____ 2.3 Changes in Matter 6. How are temperature and thermal energy

related? Thermal energy = the total movement of particles in motion Temperature = the measurement of thermal energy 2.3 Changes in Matter 7. What is the difference between endothermic and exothermic?

Endo = takes in heat (colder) Exo = releases heat (warmer) 3.1 & 3.2 Changes of State 3.2 Changes of State 1. 2. 3. Substance during phase changes 3.2 Changes of State

4. Are changes in state a physical or chemical property? Does it change into a new substance? Ice liquid water steam 3.2 Changes of State 5. How is energy related to changes of states of matter? As heat energy is added to a system, it increases

the motion of particles eventually leading to a phase change Ex: Solid liquid 4.1 Introduction to Atoms 1. Describe the particles of an atom 4.1 Introduction to Atoms 2. Atomic number, mass & isotopes

4.2 Organizing the Elements 1. Across/rows = periods 2. Columns = Groups (same valence electron) similar properties families for similar characteristics Elements

4.2 Organizing the Elements 9. Trends of the periodic table 4.3 Metals 1. Physical Properties of metals Shininess Malleability Ductility conductivity

4.3 Metals 2. Chemical Properties of metals React by losing eSome are very reactive (group 1) 4.3 Metals 5. Group numbers of metals Group 1: Alkali metals very reactive Group 2: Alkali earth metals somewhat

reactive Group 3-12: Transition metals hard, shiny, good conductors, least reactive 4.4 Nonmetals and Metalloids 1. 2. & 3. What are the properties of nonmetals? Poor conductors of electricity and heat (PP) Reactive with other elements (CP)

Dull and brittle (solids) (PP) 5.1 Atoms and Bonding 1. What particles in the atom are involved in the bonding of atoms? Electrons 5.1 Atoms and Bonding 2. How is the reactivity of elements related to

valence electrons in atoms? Closer to filling octet, more reactive 5.1 Atoms and Bonding 4. What are valence electrons and where are they found? 5.2 Ionic Bonds

1. What are ions and how do they form bonds? Ion = an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge Loses = (loses a negative charge = + ion) Gains = (gains a negative charge = - ion) 5.2 Ionic Bonds 2.How are the formulas and names of ionic compounds written?

(Metal) + (non metal + ide) Calcium + chlor ine + ide Calcium Chloride 5.2 Ionic Bonds 3. What are the properties of ionic compounds? Hard, brittle crystals High melting points Conduct electricity

5.3 Covalent Bonds 1. What is a covalent bond and how are they formed? COVALENT = chemical bond when two+ atoms share eNon metals 5.3 Covalent Bonds Properties

Lower melting points & boiling points Dont conduct electricity 5.3 Covalent Bonds 2. Unequal sharing of electrons Polar When the e- are attracted to one atom more than the

other 6.1 Observing Chemical Change 1. How are energy and chemical rxns related Heat Light Sound Particles in motion and released different ways in reactions

6.1 Observing Chemical Change 2.-7. see previous slides 6.2 Describing Chemical Reactions 1. What are chemical equations? A way to write a chemical reaction with symbols instead of words

6.2 Describing Chemical Reactions 2. Contains Reactant + reactant product + product Practice Fe + O2 + H2O Rust 2Mg + O2 2MgO

6.2 Describing Chemical Reactions 4. Conservation of Mass see previous slides 5. Balance H2 + O2 H2O Ca + Cl CaCl2

CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + H2O 7.1 Understanding Solutions 1. What are the two parts of a solution? Solution = a well mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout Solvent = the part of the solution that is present in

the largest amount; dissolves Solute = The part of the solution in the lesser amount; Gets dissolved Whats a solvent & solute? Water SOLVENT

Sugar & lemon SOLUTE Examples SOLVENT Water Air Water

SOLUTE Salt Oxygen and other gases Carbon Dioxide You SOLUTE the SOLVENT 7.2 Concentration and Solubility

1. Why is solubility useful in identifying substances? Solubility = a measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature So if I keep adding sugar to my kool aid mix, will it ever get to a point where it stops dissolving? Each substance has its own point where it reaches maximum ability to dissolved and becomes saturated 7.2 Concentration and Solubility

2. What factors affect solubility? Concentration of solvent Concentration of solute Temperature Rate of stirring Catalyst 7.3 & .4 Describing Acids and Bases 1. What are the properties of acids & bases?

Acids = range from 0-6; taste sour; turn litmus paper red; react with certain metals Ex: citrus, battery acid Neutral = 7 (water) Bases = range from 8-14; taste bitter; turn litmus paper blue; slippery feel Ex: Ammonia, bleach 7.3 Acids and Bases

2. & 3. & 4. What does the pH of a solution tell you? 7.3 Acids and Bases 3. How are the strengths of acids and bases determined? Scales? pH Litmus paper

Indicators (bromo blue, phenol red & cabbage juice) Questions? Hot Shot Get in teams of 4-5 Teams that answer correctly can earn 1, 3, or 5 points based on their shot

1. What would be a good conclusion for this experiment? A. B. C. D. Steel wool is most reactive

Paper is most reactive Copper wire is most reactive Wood splinter is most reactive 2. If four carbon atoms undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen to form CO2 molecules, how many carbon atoms should be found in the product? A. 1

B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 3. Which of the following are elements? A. Hydrogen B. Water C. Ocean Water D. Carbon Dioxide

E. Calcium 4. Acid rain is found in parts of the country where there are many cars and power plants. Water in the form of rain is chemically combined with sulfur dioxide and oxygen to create sulfuric acid, which becomes acid rain. What is a product? A. Sulfur dioxide

B. Water C. Oxygen D. Sulfuric acid 6. A scientist places 10mL of water in a test tube and cools the liquid in a freezer for 2 hours. The liquid freezes and turns into ice. This experiment is a good example of A. CC phase changes

B. PC phase changes C. CC chemical reactions D. PC chemical reactions 7. Which of the following is an example of a chemical change? A. Boiling water because a gas is released B. Mixing kool aid with water because it changes color

C. Bending steel because it changes shape D. Mixing yeast with peroxide and soap because it turns into a new substance 8. Which of the following are homogeneous mixtures? A. Sweet Tea (no herbs or sugar visible) B. Soil sample C. Fruit salad

D. Blood E. Salt water 9. Which of the following are solvents? A. Water B. Sugar C. Salt 10. How would a scientist find the mass of an

object? A. Use L x W x H B. Use a beaker C. Use a triple beam balance D. Use a graduated cylinder 11. Which of the following would be the best title for the chart below? A. Gases Found in the Air

B. Chemical Properties of Common Elements C. Chemical Properties of Common Compounds D. Physical Properties of Common Elements E. Properties of the Periodic Table of Elements (Insert Title Here) Helium (He) Colorless; less dense than air Iron (Fe) Attracted to a magnet; melting point of 1,535 C Oxygen (O)

Odorless; gas at room temperature 12. Which of the following are physical properties? A. Salt has the ability to dissolve B. The sugar has a mass of 22 grams C. The paper can bend D. Calcium can fizz in water and will give off a

gas E. The silver spoon can tarnish 13. A ball has a mass of 100 grams and occupies a volume of 10 cm3. What is the density of the ball? 14. If a student wanted to make the hot cocoa drink more concentrated, what would he add?

A. More solvent (water) so that it would be weaker B. More solute (cocoa mix) so that it would be weaker C. More solute (water) so that it would be weaker D. More solvent (cocoa mix) so that it would be stronger E. More solvent (water) so that it would be stronger F. More solute (cocoa mix) so that it would be stronger

15. Who performed the gold foil experiment? A. Bohr B. Dalton C. Rutherford D. Thompson 16. The plum pudding model helped us know that there are

A. Protons B. Electrons C. Neutrons D. Nucleus 16. Atoms are arranged in a table based on A. Atomic number B. Atomic Mass C. Shells or orbits of electrons

D. Properties E. All of the above 16. Atoms are arranged in a table based on A. Atomic number B. Atomic Mass C. Shells or orbits of electrons D. Properties E. All of the above

17. Use the Periodic Table 18. Use the Periodic Table 19. Use the Periodic Table 20. Which of the following would most likely become a negatively charged ion?

A. Hydrogen (H) B. Sodium (Na) C. Calcium (Ca) D. Fluorine (F) 21. Lithium (Li) would most likely bond with which of the following? A. Hydrogen because it has 1 eB. Na because they are in the same column C. Be because they are in the same row

D. Br because it has 7 valence e-

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